Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Center for Interfaith Relations Board of Directors meeting
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where it exists) form the company's constitution, and defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

- Articles of association

A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

Typically, the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman (often now called the "chair" or "chairperson"), who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association.

- Board of directors

Individual rules for corporations are based upon the corporate charter and, less authoritatively, the corporate bylaws.

- Corporate governance

It is generally perceived that regulatory attention on the corporate governance practices of publicly listed corporations, particularly in relation to transparency and accountability, increased in many jurisdictions following the high-profile corporate scandals in 2001–2002, many of which involved accounting fraud; and then again after the financial crisis in 2008.

- Corporate governance

This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board and allows for clear lines of authority.

- Board of directors

A board of directors is expected to play a key role in corporate governance.

- Corporate governance
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.

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