Artificial intelligence

AIA.I.artificially intelligentmachine intelligenceartificial intelligence (AI)artificial intelligencesintelligentAIscomputer-controlledartificial-intelligence
In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans.wikipedia
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Natural-language understanding

natural language understandinglanguage understandingUnderstanding
Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.
Natural-language understanding (NLU) or natural-language interpretation (NLI) is a subtopic of natural-language processing in artificial intelligence that deals with machine reading comprehension.

AI effect

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect.
The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not real intelligence.

AI winter

KEEKEE functionalitymarginally successful
Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding.
In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research.

Knowledge representation and reasoning

knowledge representationrepresentationknowledge
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.

Automated planning and scheduling

automated planningplanningAI planning
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
Automated planning and scheduling, sometimes denoted as simply AI planning, is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realization of strategies or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles.

Machine learning

machine-learninglearningstatistical learning
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
It is seen as a subset of artificial intelligence.

Natural language processing

NLPnatural languagenatural-language processing
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, information engineering, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

History of artificial intelligence

21st CenturyDartmouth Conferencehistory of AI
These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.
The field of AI research was founded at a workshop held on the campus of Dartmouth College during the summer of 1956.

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

philosophy of AIartificial intelligence philosophersCan a machine have a mind?
These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.
Artificial intelligence has close connections with philosophy because both share several concepts and these include intelligence, action, consciousness, epistemology, and even free will.

Artificial intelligence in fiction

artificial intelligenceA.I.AI dominance
These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.
Artificial intelligence is a recurrent theme in science fiction, whether utopian, emphasising the potential benefits, or dystopian, emphasising the dangers.

Robotics

roboticroboticistFuture of robotics
These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences.
This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.

Optical character recognition

OCRcharacter recognitiontext recognition
For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology.
OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision.

Automated reasoning

reasoningArtificial intelligence reasoningautomated inferencing
The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
Although automated reasoning is considered a sub-field of artificial intelligence, it also has connections with theoretical computer science, and even philosophy.

Artificial general intelligence

strong AIAIgeneral intelligence
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.
It is a primary goal of some artificial intelligence research and a common topic in science fiction and futures studies.

Intelligence

intelligenthuman intelligencemental capacity
In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans.
Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, which is commonly implemented in computer systems using programs and, sometimes, specialized hardware.

Information engineering (field)

information engineeringInformationIE/Information engineering
The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.
The components of information engineering include more theoretical fields such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, control theory, signal processing, and information theory, and more applied fields such as computer vision, natural language processing, bioinformatics, medical image computing, cheminformatics, autonomous robotics, mobile robotics, and telecommunications.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".
For example, whether mind is exclusive to humans, possessed also by some or all animals, by all living things, whether it is a strictly definable characteristic at all, or whether mind can also be a property of some types of human-made machines.

Alan Turing

TuringAlan M. TuringAlan Mathison Turing
The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction.
Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthyMcCarthyMcCarthy, John
The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956, where the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy to distinguish the field from cybernetics and escape the influence of the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener.
McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence.

Marvin Minsky

MinskyMarvin L. Minskyartificial intelligence
Attendees Allen Newell (CMU), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (MIT), Marvin Minsky (MIT) and Arthur Samuel (IBM) became the founders and leaders of AI research.
Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.

Expert system

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In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts.
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.

Arthur Samuel

Arthur L. SamuelSamuel
Attendees Allen Newell (CMU), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (MIT), Marvin Minsky (MIT) and Arthur Samuel (IBM) became the founders and leaders of AI research.
Arthur Lee Samuel (December 5, 1901 – July 29, 1990) was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence.

Fifth generation computer

Fifth Generation Computer Systems projectFifth Generation Computer SystemsJapanese Fifth Generation Project (FGCS)
At the same time, Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U.S and British governments to restore funding for academic research.
It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence.

Herbert A. Simon

Herbert SimonSimonHerb Simon
Attendees Allen Newell (CMU), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (MIT), Marvin Minsky (MIT) and Arthur Samuel (IBM) became the founders and leaders of AI research.
Notably, Simon was among the pioneers of several modern-day scientific domains such as artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, organization theory, and complex systems.

Norbert Wiener

WienerWiener, NorbertN. Wiener
The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956, where the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy to distinguish the field from cybernetics and escape the influence of the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener.
Norbert Wiener is credited as being one of the first to theorize that all intelligent behavior was the result of feedback mechanisms, that could possibly be simulated by machines and was an important early step towards the development of modern artificial intelligence.