Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence
A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.
An ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.
René Descartes' illustration of mind/body dualism.
A parse tree represents the syntactic structure of a sentence according to some formal grammar.
Portrait of René Descartes by Frans Hals (1648)
Feature detection (pictured: edge detection) helps AI compose informative abstract structures out of raw data.
Four varieties of dualism. The arrows indicate the direction of the causal interactions. Occasionalism is not shown.
Kismet, a robot with rudimentary social skills
The classic Identity theory and Anomalous Monism in contrast. For the Identity theory, every token instantiation of a single mental type corresponds (as indicated by the arrows) to a physical token of a single physical type. For anomalous monism, the token–token correspondences can fall outside of the type–type correspondences. The result is token identity.
A particle swarm seeking the global minimum
John Searle—one of the most influential philosophers of mind, proponent of biological naturalism (Berkeley 2002)
Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption.
Since the 1980s, sophisticated neuroimaging procedures, such as fMRI (above), have furnished increasing knowledge about the workings of the human brain, shedding light on ancient philosophical problems.
A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
Representing images on multiple layers of abstraction in deep learning
For this project the AI had to learn the typical patterns in the colors and brushstrokes of Renaissance painter Raphael. The portrait shows the face of the actress Ornella Muti, "painted" by AI in the style of Raphael.
AI Patent families for functional application categories and sub categories. Computer vision represents 49 percent of patent families related to a functional application in 2016.
The word "robot" itself was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R., the title standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"

These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, especially in the fields of sociobiology, computer science (specifically, artificial intelligence), evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences.

- Philosophy of mind

Artificial intelligence and machine learning aim to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals.

- Computer science

AI also draws upon computer science, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.

- Artificial intelligence

From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence.

- Computer science

The philosophy of mind does not know whether a machine can have a mind, consciousness and mental states, in the same sense that human beings do.

- Artificial intelligence
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

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