Artillery

heavy artilleryordnanceartillery piecegunnerlight artilleryartillery piecesartillerymengunsArtillerieartillerist
Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.wikipedia
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Infantry

infantry regimentinfantrymanP.
Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Hence, the naming of the Honourable Artillery Company, which was essentially an infantry unit until the 19th century.
Infantry is a military specialization that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

Field artillery

field piecefieldtowed artillery
As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.

Cannon

cannonsgunsartillery pieces
As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, and rocket artillery. From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. During the Hundred Years' War, these weapons became more common, initially as the bombard and later the cannon.
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

Siege

besiegedsiege warfarebesiege
Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications during sieges, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines.
This is typically coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege engines, artillery bombardment, mining (also known as sapping), or the use of deception or treachery to bypass defenses.

Self-propelled artillery

self-propelledself-propelled howitzersself-propelled howitzer
This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the large share of an army's total firepower.
Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.

Rocket artillery

artillery rocketrocketsartillery rockets
Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, and rocket artillery.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery which utilizes rockets as a projectile, the use of rocket artillery dates back to medieval China where devices such as fire arrows were used (albeit mostly as a psychological weapon).

Coastal artillery

Coast Artilleryshore batteriesshore battery
An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.

Ranged weapon

rangedranged weaponsprojectile weapon
Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In modern warfare, ranged weaponry is also used both tactically and strategically in the form of long-range artilleries, rockets and guided missiles.

Railway gun

railway artilleryrailroad gunrailway guns
These land versions of artillery were dwarfed by railway guns; the largest of these large-calibre guns ever conceived – Project Babylon of the Supergun affair – was theoretically capable of putting a satellite into orbit.
A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.

Combat arms

combat armcombatant arm of the linecombat
By association, artillery may also refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines.
In general they include units that carry or employ a weapon system, such as infantry, cavalry, and artillery units.

Large-calibre artillery

large-calibre gunlarge-calibre cannonGiant Moving Turret
These land versions of artillery were dwarfed by railway guns; the largest of these large-calibre guns ever conceived – Project Babylon of the Supergun affair – was theoretically capable of putting a satellite into orbit.
The formal definition of large-calibre artillery used by the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms (UNROCA) is "guns, howitzers, artillery pieces, combining the characteristics of a gun, howitzer, mortar, or multiple-launch rocket system, capable of engaging surface targets by delivering primarily indirect fire, with a calibre of 75 millimetres and above".

Gun carriage

box trailSplit trailSplit-trail
From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages.
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.

Artillery battery

batterybatteriesartillery batteries
Several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery, usually called a battery, although sometimes called a company.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, etc., so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.

Siege engine

siege enginessiege trainsiege machine
Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications during sieges, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines.
With the development of gunpowder and improved metallurgy, bombards and later heavy artillery became the primary siege engines.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery.
Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground extremely difficult.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with France
The majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery.
Tactically, the French Army redefined the role of artillery, while Napoleon emphasised mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, and aerial surveillance was used for the first time in warfare.

Honourable Artillery Company

HACThe Honourable Artillery Company11th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company)
Hence, the naming of the Honourable Artillery Company, which was essentially an infantry unit until the 19th century.
The HAC expanded to three infantry battalions and seven artillery batteries during the First World War.

Bombard (weapon)

bombardbombardsBombard cannon
During the Hundred Years' War, these weapons became more common, initially as the bombard and later the cannon.
Bombards were mainly large calibre, muzzle-loading artillery pieces used during sieges to shoot round stone projectiles at the walls of enemy fortifications, enabling troops to break in.

Gun barrel

barrelmuzzlebarrels
Their large size precluded the barrels being cast and they were constructed out of metal staves or rods bound together with hoops like a barrel, giving their name to the gun barrel.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years WarHundred Years’ WarHundred Year's War
During the Hundred Years' War, these weapons became more common, initially as the bombard and later the cannon.
The wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, and artillery became important.

Kazimierz Siemienowicz

Kazimieras SimonavičiusCasimir Siemienowicz
The 1650 book by Kazimierz Siemienowicz Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima was one of the most important contemporary publications on the subject of artillery.
undefined 1651) was a Polish general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.

Castle

castlesMedieval castlefortification
Cannons were only useful for the defense of a castle, as demonstrated at Breteuil in 1356, when the besieged English used a cannon to destroy an attacking French assault tower.
They had to be high enough to make scaling the walls with ladders difficult and thick enough to withstand bombardment from siege engines which, from the 15th century onwards, included gunpowder artillery.

Targeting (warfare)

targettargetingtargets
Over the course of military history, projectiles were manufactured from a wide variety of materials, into a wide variety of shapes, using many different methods in which to target structural/defensive works and inflict enemy casualties.
Targeting may also refer to the targeting of the actual objective to be destroyed by military personnel, such as "painting" a target with a laser for laser guided munitions, estimating range for artillery, etc.

Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval

Jean Baptiste Vaquette de GribeauvalGribeauvalGribeauval system
Jean-Baptiste de Gribeauval, a French artillery engineer, introduced the standardization of cannon design in the mid-18th century.
Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (15 September 1715 – 9 May 1789) was a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range.

Smoothbore

smooth-boresmooth boresmoothbore gun
Bombards developed in Europe were massive smoothbore weapons distinguished by their lack of a field carriage, immobility once emplaced, highly individual design, and noted unreliability (in 1460 James II, King of Scots, was killed when one exploded at the siege of Roxburgh).
Artillery weapons were smoothbore until the middle 19th century, and smoothbores continued in limited use until the 1890s.