Aryan

AryaAryansAryasāryaAaryaáryaआर्य Aryan originAiryaAriya-puggala — Noble Ones
"Aryan" (New Persian: āriāyi آریایی) has as its root a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.wikipedia
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Indo-Iranians

Indo-IranianProto-Indo-Iranian religionIndo-Iranian peoples
"Aryan" (New Persian: āriāyi آریایی) has as its root a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
The Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, and the word forms the etymological source of the country name Iran. The Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-European origins, It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-European root word is ''*h a Achaemenid and Sassanid empires, whilst negating the 'Islamization' of Persia by Muslim forces." In the 20th century, different aspects of this idealization of a distant past would be instrumentalized by both the Pahlavi monarchy (In 1967, Iran's Pahlavi dynasty [overthrown in the 1979 Iranian Revolution] added the title Āryāmehr Light of the Aryans to the other styles of the Iranian monarch, the Shah of Iran being already known at that time as the Shahanshah (King of Kings)), and by the Islamic republic that followed it; the Pahlavis used it as a foundation for anticlerical monarchism, and the clerics used it to exalt Iranian values vis-á-vis westernization.
The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- (Middle Persian) and ary- (Parthian), both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya- (meaning "Aryan", i.e. "of the Iranians"), recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European, meaning "one who assembles (skilfully)".

Iranian peoples

IranianIraniansIranian people
The Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, and the word forms the etymological source of the country name Iran.
Unlike the Sanskrit ā́rya- (Aryan), the Old Iranian term has solely an ethnic meaning.

Aryan race

AryanAryansAryanism
Through the works of Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Gobineau's ideas later influenced the Nazi racial ideology which saw "Aryan peoples" as innately superior to other putative racial groups.
Its cognate in Sanskrit is the word ārya (Devanāgarī: आर्य), in origin an ethnic self-designation, in Classical Sanskrit meaning "honourable, respectable, noble".

Houston Stewart Chamberlain

Houston ChamberlainCHAMBERLAIN, Houston StewartChamberlain, Houston Stewart.
Through the works of Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Gobineau's ideas later influenced the Nazi racial ideology which saw "Aryan peoples" as innately superior to other putative racial groups. Under Rosenberg, the theories of Arthur de Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Blavatsky, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Madison Grant, and those of Hitler, all culminated in Nazi Germany's race policies and the "Aryanization" decrees of the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1940s.
In these stories about ancient Aryan heroes conquering the Indian subcontinent, Chamberlain found a very appealing world governed by a rigid caste system with social inferiors firmly locked into their place; full of larger-than-life Aryan gods and aristocratic heroes and a world that focused on the spiritual at the expense of the material.

Alans

AlanAlaniAlanic
In Iranian languages, the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like "Alans" and "Iron".
The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan.

Arthur de Gobineau

GobineauJoseph Arthur de GobineauArthur Gobineau
Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations. Under Rosenberg, the theories of Arthur de Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Blavatsky, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Madison Grant, and those of Hitler, all culminated in Nazi Germany's race policies and the "Aryanization" decrees of the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1940s.
He thought this corresponded to the ancient Indo-European culture, which earlier anthropologists had misconceived as "Aryan"—a term that only Indo-Iranians are known to have used in ancient times.

Historical race concepts

Historical definitions of raceraceraces
Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations.
He thought it corresponded to the ancient Indo-European culture, also known as "Aryan".

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Shah of IranShahMohammad Reza Shah
The Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-European origins, It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-European root word is ''*h a Achaemenid and Sassanid empires, whilst negating the 'Islamization' of Persia by Muslim forces." In the 20th century, different aspects of this idealization of a distant past would be instrumentalized by both the Pahlavi monarchy (In 1967, Iran's Pahlavi dynasty [overthrown in the 1979 Iranian Revolution] added the title Āryāmehr Light of the Aryans to the other styles of the Iranian monarch, the Shah of Iran being already known at that time as the Shahanshah (King of Kings)), and by the Islamic republic that followed it; the Pahlavis used it as a foundation for anticlerical monarchism, and the clerics used it to exalt Iranian values vis-á-vis westernization.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr ("Light of the Aryans") and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief").

Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-AryanIndo-AryansAryans
The term was used by the Indo-Aryan people of the Vedic period in India as an ethnic label for themselves and later refer to the noble class as well as the geographic region known as Āryāvarta, where Indo-Aryan culture is based (in this region).

Miscegenation

interracialadmixtureamalgamation
Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations.
To be spared from those, one had to prove one's affiliation with the group of the Aryan race, as conceived by the Nazis.

Racial policy of Nazi Germany

Nazi racial policiesNazi racial policyracial policies
Under Rosenberg, the theories of Arthur de Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Blavatsky, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Madison Grant, and those of Hitler, all culminated in Nazi Germany's race policies and the "Aryanization" decrees of the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1940s.
Nazi policies labeled centuries-long residents in German territory who were not ethnic Germans such as Jews (understood in Nazi racial theory as a "Semitic" people of Levantine origins), Romanis (also known as Gypsies, an "Indo-Aryan" people of Indian Subcontinent origins), along with the vast majority of Slavs (mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, Russians etc.), and most non-Europeans as inferior non-Aryan subhumans (i.e. non-Nordics, under the Nazi appropriation of the term "Aryan") in a racial hierarchy that placed the Herrenvolk ("master race") of the Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community") at the top.

Neo-Nazism

neo-Nazineo-Nazisneonazi
Notions of the "Aryan race" as an elite group that is regarded as being superior to other races survive in some far-right European groups, such as Neo-Nazi parties, Russian ultra-nationalists, as well as in certain Iranian nationalist groups.
Figures influential in the development of neo-Nazi racism, such as Miguel Serrano and Julius Evola (writers who are described by critics of Nazism such as the Southern Poverty Law Center as influential within what it presents as parts of "the bizarre fringes of National Socialism, past and present"), claim that the Hyperborean ancestors of the Aryans were in the distant past, far higher beings than their current state, having suffered from "involution" due to mixing with the "Telluric" peoples; supposed creations of the Demiurge.

Alfred Rosenberg

RosenbergAlfred RosenburgAlfred Ernst Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg—one of the principal architects of Nazi ideological creed—argued for a new "religion of the blood", based on the supposed innate promptings of the Nordic soul to defend its "noble" character against racial and cultural degeneration.
Rosenberg placed Blacks and Jews at the very bottom of the ladder, while at the very top stood the white "Aryan" race.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
In its "appalling medical model", the annihilation of the "racially inferior" Untermenschen was sanctified as the excision of a diseased organ in an otherwise healthy body, which led to the Holocaust.
Central to his world view was the idea of expansion and lebensraum (living space) in Eastern Europe for German Aryans, a policy of what Doris Bergen called "race and space".

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
The Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-European origins, It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-European root word is ''*h a Achaemenid and Sassanid empires, whilst negating the 'Islamization' of Persia by Muslim forces." In the 20th century, different aspects of this idealization of a distant past would be instrumentalized by both the Pahlavi monarchy (In 1967, Iran's Pahlavi dynasty [overthrown in the 1979 Iranian Revolution] added the title Āryāmehr Light of the Aryans to the other styles of the Iranian monarch, the Shah of Iran being already known at that time as the Shahanshah (King of Kings)), and by the Islamic republic that followed it; the Pahlavis used it as a foundation for anticlerical monarchism, and the clerics used it to exalt Iranian values vis-á-vis westernization.
On a lower level, Sasanian society was divided into Azatan (freemen), who jealously guarded their status as descendants of ancient Aryan conquerors, and the mass of originally non-Aryan peasantry.

Georges Vacher de Lapouge

Vacher de LapougeLapougeanthroposociology
Under Rosenberg, the theories of Arthur de Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Blavatsky, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Madison Grant, and those of Hitler, all culminated in Nazi Germany's race policies and the "Aryanization" decrees of the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1940s.
He wrote L'Aryen: son Rôle Social (1899, "The Aryan: His Social Role"), in which he opposed the Aryan, dolichocephalic races to the brachycephalic races.

Airyanem Vaejah

Airyana VaēǰahAiryan'əm VaējahAiryana Vaego
Airyanem Vaejah (Old Iranian: *aryānām waiǰah, Avestan: airyanəm vaēǰō, Middle Persian: ērānwēz, New Persian: irānwēj, Parthian: aryānwēžan, approximately “expanse of the Aryans”, i.e. Iranians) is the homeland of the early Iranians and a reference in the Zoroastrian Avesta (Vendidad, Farg.

Mleccha

mlechchhamlechchhasMlecchas
Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit, meaning "non-Vedic", "barbarian") is a Sanskrit term referring to foreign or barbarous peoples in ancient India, as contradistinguished from Aryas.

H. G. Wells

H.G. WellsWellsH G Wells
However, some authors writing for popular consumption have continued using the word "Aryan" for "all Indo-Europeans" in the tradition of H. G. Wells, such as the science fiction author Poul Anderson, and scientists writing for the popular media, such as Colin Renfrew.
Wells, as president of PEN International (Poets, Essayists, Novelists), angered the Nazis by overseeing the expulsion of the German PEN club from the international body in 1934 following the German PEN's refusal to admit non-Aryan writers to its membership.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
The term was used by the Indo-Aryan people of the Vedic period in India as an ethnic label for themselves and later refer to the noble class as well as the geographic region known as Āryāvarta, where Indo-Aryan culture is based (in this region).

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
The term was used by the Indo-Aryan people of the Vedic period in India as an ethnic label for themselves and later refer to the noble class as well as the geographic region known as Āryāvarta, where Indo-Aryan culture is based (in this region).

Avesta

Zend AvestaYounger AvestaAvestas
The Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, and the word forms the etymological source of the country name Iran.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologies
The Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, and the word forms the etymological source of the country name Iran.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations.