Asbestos

asbestos fibersblue asbestosamphibole asbestosasbestiformAsbestos Containing Materialasbestos fibresNaturally occurring asbestos asbestosasbestiform amphiboleasbestos-free
Asbestos (pronounced: or ) is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals.wikipedia
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Crystal habit

habitMassivetabular
All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes.
For example, minerals used for asbestos insulation often grow in a fibrous habit, a mass of very fine fibers.

Asbestosis

asbestosasbestos poisoningdust diseases
Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer.
Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos fibres.

Asbestos-ceramic

Asbestos ware
Asbestos use dates back at least 4,500 years, when the inhabitants of the Lake Juojärvi region in East Finland strengthened earthenware pots and cooking utensils with the asbestos mineral anthophyllite (see Asbestos-ceramic).
Asbestos-ceramic is a type of pottery manufactured with asbestos and clay in Finland, Karelia and more widely in Fennoscandia from around 5000 BC.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer.
Cancers such as lung cancer and mesothelioma can come from inhaling tobacco smoke or asbestos fibers, or leukemia from exposure to benzene.

Fireproofing

fireprooffire-resistantfire resistance
Asbestos was widely used during the 20th century until the 1970s when public recognition of the health hazards of asbestos dust led to its outlawing in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries.
Asbestos was one material historically used for fireproofing, either on its own, or together with binders such as cement, either in sprayed form or in pressed sheets, or as additives to a variety of materials and products, including fabrics for protective clothing and building materials.

Chrysotile

chrysotile asbestoswhite asbestosClinochrysotile
Sir William Edmond Logan was the first to notice the large deposits of chrysotile in the hills in his capacity as head of Geological Survey of Canada.
Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in the United States and a similar proportion in other countries.

Anthophyllite

ferro-anthophyllite
Asbestos use dates back at least 4,500 years, when the inhabitants of the Lake Juojärvi region in East Finland strengthened earthenware pots and cooking utensils with the asbestos mineral anthophyllite (see Asbestos-ceramic).
Some forms of anthophyllite are lamellar or fibrous and are classed as asbestos.

Thetford Mines

Black LakeThetford Mines, QuebecBlack Lake, Quebec
Industrial-scale mining began in the Thetford hills, Quebec, from the 1870s.
Thetford Mines was founded in 1876 after the discovery of large asbestos deposits in the area, and the city became a hub for one of the world's largest asbestos-producing regions.

Mesothelioma

malignant mesotheliomamalignant pleural mesotheliomapleural mesothelioma
The term mesothelioma was first used in medical literature in 1931; its association with asbestos was first noted sometime in the 1940s.
More than 80% of mesothelioma cases are caused by exposure to asbestos.

Serpentine subgroup

serpentineantigoriteserpentine group
Serpentine minerals have a sheet or layered structure.
They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, and as a decorative stone.

Silicate minerals

silicate mineralphyllosilicatephyllosilicates
Asbestos (pronounced: or ) is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals.

Turner & Newall

Turner Brothers AsbestosSir Samuel TurnerTurner and Newall
Nellie Kershaw was employed at Turner Brothers Asbestos in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England from 1917, spinning raw asbestos fibre into yarn.
As part of their business, the company was one of the first to industrialize asbestos, and its eventual demise in 2001 left an aftermath of asbestos litigation.

Drywall

plasterboardwallboardsheetrock
The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper, fiberglass, asbestos, or a combination of these materials), plasticizer, foaming agent, and various additives that can reduce mildew, flammability, and water absorption.

Nellie Kershaw

Nellie Kershaw was employed at Turner Brothers Asbestos in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England from 1917, spinning raw asbestos fibre into yarn.
Her death due to pulmonary asbestosis was the first such case to be described in medical literature, and the first published account of disease attributed to occupational asbestos exposure.

Staten Island

Staten Island, New YorkRichmondStaten Island, NY
The U.S. asbestos industry had an early start in 1858, when fibrous anthophyllite was mined for use as asbestos insulation by the Johns Company, a predecessor to the current Johns Manville, at a quarry at Ward's Hill on Staten Island, New York.
This strata of the Lower Paleozoic (approximately 430 million years old) consists predominantly of the serpentine minerals, antigorite, chrysotile, and lizardite; it also contains asbestos and talc.

Asbestos, Quebec

AsbestosAsbestos*
For a long time, the world's largest asbestos mine was the Jeffrey mine in the town of Asbestos, Quebec.
It is the site of the Jeffrey mine, until recently the world's largest asbestos mine, which has long been the town's largest employer, and of the now-closed Magnola magnesium refinery.

Gasket

gasketsFlange gasketengine gasket
Gaskets for specific applications, such as high pressure steam systems, may contain asbestos.

Clutch

Wetwet clutchdry clutch
While mostly chrysotile asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake pads, shoes, and clutch discs, contaminants of amphiboles were present.
Various materials have been used for the disc-friction facings, including asbestos in the past.

Aramid

aramid fiberAramidepara-aramid
Since approximately the mid-1990s, brake pads, new or replacement, have been manufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic and aramid fiber (Twaron or Kevlar—the same material used in bulletproof vests).
They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic-rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, marine cordage, marine hull reinforcement, and as an asbestos substitute.

Transite

Transite originated as a brand that Johns Manville, an American company, created in 1929 for a line of asbestos-cement products, including boards and pipes.

Cigarette filter

filterfiltersfilter cigarette
Cigarette manufacturer Lorillard (Kent's filtered cigarette) used crocidolite asbestos in its "Micronite" filter from 1952 to 1956.
Macroporous phenol-formaldehyde resins and asbestos have also been used in cigarette filters.

Insulator (electricity)

insulatorinsulatorsinsulation
Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is highly resistant to heat, so for many years it was used as a building material.
In older apparatus made up to the early 1970s, boards made of compressed asbestos may be found; while this is an adequate insulator at power frequencies, handling or repairs to asbestos material can release dangerous fibers into the air and must be carried cautiously.

Erechtheion

ErechtheumErechtheisErechteum
A famous example is the golden lamp asbestos lychnis, which the sculptor Callimachus made for the Erechtheion.
In front of the main statue, a golden lamp called "asbestos lychnia" made by the sculptor Callimachus burned continuously with its asbestos wick and was refuelled once a year.

Eden, Vermont

EdenBelvidere MountainEden Mills
US production began in earnest in 1899, with the discovery of large deposits in the Belvidere Mountain.
An asbestos mine on Belvidere Mountain which operated from 1936 to 1993 left an estimated 3500000 yd3 of mill tailings.

National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

hazardous air pollutantNESHAPAir Toxics
Renovation and demolition of asbestos-contaminated buildings is subject to EPA NESHAP and OSHA Regulations.