Ascites

ascitic fluidBulging flanksChylous ascitesperitoneal effusionabdominal swellingasciticfluid build up in the abdomenmalignant ascites ascites fluida buildup of fluid in the abdomen
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.wikipedia
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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

spontaneously infected
Complications can include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Complications may include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and thrombosis.
It is specifically an infection of the ascitic fluid – an increased volume of peritoneal fluid.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, and blockage of the hepatic vein.
Some cancers can cause a buildup of fluid within the chest or abdomen.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, and blockage of the hepatic vein.
Specifically, congestion takes the form of water retention and swelling (edema), both as peripheral edema (causing swollen limbs and feet) and as pulmonary edema (causing breathing difficulty), as well as ascites (swollen abdomen).

Pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreasgallstone pancreatitispancreatic inflammation
Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, and blockage of the hepatic vein.
Blood loss, dehydration, and fluid leaking into the abdominal cavity (ascites) can lead to kidney failure.

Peritoneal cavity

peritonealperitoneal cavities
Technically, it is more than 25 ml of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
An increase in the capillary pressure in the abdominal viscera can cause fluid to leave the interstitial space and enter the peritoneal cavity, a condition called ascites.

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

TIPSTIPS procedureportosystemic shunt
A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be placed but is associated with complications.
It is used to treat portal hypertension (which is often due to liver cirrhosis) which frequently leads to intestinal bleeding, life-threatening esophageal bleeding (esophageal varices) and the buildup of fluid within the abdomen (ascites).

Paracentesis

peritoneocentesisAbdominocentesisdraining the fluid
Treatment often involves a low salt diet, medication such as diuretics, and draining the fluid.
The most common indication is ascites that has developed in people with cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
In the developed world, the most common cause is liver cirrhosis.
As the disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin.

Hepatorenal syndrome

kidney malfunction and increased liver insufficiency
Complications may include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and thrombosis.
Two forms of hepatorenal syndrome have been defined: Type 1 HRS entails a rapidly progressive decline in kidney function, while type 2 HRS is associated with ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen) that does not improve with standard diuretic medications.

Serum-ascites albumin gradient

The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is probably a better discriminant than older measures (transudate versus exudate) for the causes of ascites.
The serum-ascites albumin gradient or gap (SAAG) is a calculation used in medicine to help determine the cause of ascites.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
Portal vein thrombosis and splenic vein thrombosis involve clotting of blood affects the hepatic portal vein or varices associated with splenic vein.
This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain, ascites and enlarged liver.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome

Meigs' syndrome

Meigs syndrome
In medicine, Meigs' syndrome, also Meigs syndrome or Demons-Meigs syndrome, is the triad of ascites, pleural effusion, and benign ovarian tumor (ovarian fibroma, fibrothecoma, Brenner tumour, and occasionally granulosa cell tumour).

Shifting dullness

Dullness
Ascites is detected with physical examination of the abdomen by visible bulging of the flanks in the reclining person ("flank bulging"), "shifting dullness" (difference in percussion note in the flanks that shifts when the person is turned on the side) or in massive ascites with a "fluid thrill" or "fluid wave" (tapping or pushing on one side will generate a wave-like effect through the fluid that can be felt in the opposite side of the abdomen).
In medicine, shifting dullness refers to a sign elicited on physical examination for ascites (fluid in the peritoneal cavity).

Fluid wave test

fluid wave
Ascites is detected with physical examination of the abdomen by visible bulging of the flanks in the reclining person ("flank bulging"), "shifting dullness" (difference in percussion note in the flanks that shifts when the person is turned on the side) or in massive ascites with a "fluid thrill" or "fluid wave" (tapping or pushing on one side will generate a wave-like effect through the fluid that can be felt in the opposite side of the abdomen).
In medicine, the fluid wave test or fluid thrill test is a test for ascites (free fluid in the abdominal cavity).

Budd–Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndromehepatic vein thrombosisBudd Chiari syndrome
Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, and blockage of the hepatic vein.
It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites, and liver enlargement.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension.

Portal hypertension

high blood pressure in the portal systemincreased pressures in the portal vein circulationliver condition
In cirrhosis, the underlying mechanism involves high blood pressure in the portal system and dysfunction of blood vessels.
The management of ascites needs to be gradual to avoid sudden changes in systemic volume status which can precipitate hepatic encephalopathy, renal failure and death.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

veno-occlusive diseasehepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndromehepatic sinusoidal syndrome
Features of VODI include weight gain, tender enlargement of the liver, ascites, and yellow discoloration of the skin; it often is associated with acute kidney failure.

Kwashiorkor

edematous
The typical swollen abdomen is due to two causes: ascites because of hypoalbuminemia (low oncotic pressure), and enlarged fatty liver.

Spironolactone

AldactoneAldactazideSpironalactone
Spironolactone (or other distal-tubule diuretics such as triamterene or amiloride) is the drug of choice since they block the aldosterone receptor in the collecting tubule.
Spironolactone is used primarily to treat heart failure, edematous conditions such as nephrotic syndrome or ascites in people with liver disease, essential hypertension, low blood levels of potassium, secondary hyperaldosteronism (such as occurs with liver cirrhosis), and Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism).

Human serum albumin

albuminhuman albuminserum albumin
The fluid is then reviewed for its gross appearance, protein level, albumin, and cell counts (red and white).
It has not been shown to give better results than other fluids when used simply to replace volume, but is frequently used in conditions where loss of albumin is a major problem, such as liver disease with ascites.

Amiloride

Midamor
Spironolactone (or other distal-tubule diuretics such as triamterene or amiloride) is the drug of choice since they block the aldosterone receptor in the collecting tubule.
Amiloride can be used as a monotherapy (single-drug therapy) or an adjunctive therapy alongside other diuretics (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide) for the treatment of ascites and edema (swelling) due to cirrhosis of the liver.

Portal vein

hepatic portal veinportalhepatic portal
Roughly, transudates are a result of increased pressure in the hepatic portal vein (>8 mmHg, usually around 20 mmHg ), e.g. due to cirrhosis, while exudates are actively secreted fluid due to inflammation or malignancy.
Clinical signs of portal hypertension include those of chronic liver disease: ascites, esophageal varices, spider nevi, caput medusae, and palmar erythema.