Ashikaga Takauji

Portrait traditionally identified as that of Ashikaga Takauji
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Tomb of Ashikaga Takauji at Tōji-in in Kyoto

The founder and first shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate.

- Ashikaga Takauji

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Battle of Minatogawa

Battle of Minatogawa

Battle of the Nanboku-chō Wars fought near the Minato River in Settsu Province (present day Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture) on 5 July 1336.

Battle of the Nanboku-chō Wars fought near the Minato River in Settsu Province (present day Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture) on 5 July 1336.

Battle of Minatogawa
Troops disposition at Minatogawa

The Imperial forces loyal to Emperor Go-Daigo led by Kusunoki Masashige and Nitta Yoshisada attempted to intercept the Ashikaga forces led by Ashikaga Takauji in Settsu.

Hana-no-Gosho (Flower Palace) in Kyoto

Muromachi period

Division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573.

Division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573.

Hana-no-Gosho (Flower Palace) in Kyoto
Muromachi samurai (1538)
A ship of the Muromachi period (1538)
Muromachi-era illustration to a fictional narrative
Music scene during the Muromachi period (1538)
Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th-century painting.
A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century. Guimet Museum.
Ryōan-ji rock garden

The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bakufu or Ashikaga bakufu), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shōgun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–1336) of imperial rule was brought to a close.

Kitabatake Chikafusa, as drawn by Japanese painter Kikuchi Yosai

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Japanese court noble and writer of the 14th century who supported the Southern Court in the Nanboku-cho period, serving as advisor to five Emperors.

Japanese court noble and writer of the 14th century who supported the Southern Court in the Nanboku-cho period, serving as advisor to five Emperors.

Kitabatake Chikafusa, as drawn by Japanese painter Kikuchi Yosai

In particular, he disliked Ashikaga Takauji, the first Ashikaga shogun, who had originally supported Go-Daigo's claim to the Throne, but who ultimately headed the Northern Court and sought to destroy all who supported the Emperor's Southern Court.

Kitabatake Akiie (portrait property of Ryozen Shrine)

Kitabatake Akiie

Japanese court noble, and an important supporter of the Southern Court during the Nanboku-chō Wars.

Japanese court noble, and an important supporter of the Southern Court during the Nanboku-chō Wars.

Kitabatake Akiie (portrait property of Ryozen Shrine)

Three years later, he led an army nominally under the command of Norinaga to the outskirts of Kyoto to reinforce the forces of Nitta Yoshisada against Ashikaga Takauji.

Kō no Moroyasu (by Utagawa Sadahide)

Kō no Moroyasu

Kō no Moroyasu (by Utagawa Sadahide)

Kō no Moroyasu (高 師泰) was one of the leading generals of Shōgun Ashikaga Takauji during the Nanboku-chō period, along with his brother Moronao and his cousin Morofuyu.

The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-chō period were in relatively close proximity, but geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as:

Bunna

Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kannō and before Enbun. This period spanned the years from September 1352 through March 1356.

Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kannō and before Enbun. This period spanned the years from September 1352 through March 1356.

The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-chō period were in relatively close proximity, but geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as:

This illegitimate Northern Court (北朝) had been established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji.

Emperor Go-Kōgon

The 4th of the Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

The 4th of the Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom

In 1351, Ashikaga Takauji briefly returned to the allegiance of the Southern Dynasty, causing the Southern Court to briefly consolidate control of the Imperial Line.

Japan

Island country in East Asia.

Island country in East Asia.

Legendary Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇)
Samurai warriors battling Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the
Emperor Meiji (明治天皇); 1852–1912
Japan's imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country's surrender to the Allies.
The Japanese archipelago
Mount Fuji in Spring, view from Arakurayama Sengen Park
Autumn maple leaves at Kongōbu-ji on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The National Diet Building
Japan is a member of both the G7 and the G20.
JMSDF class destroyer
The Tokyo Stock Exchange
A rice paddy in Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture
A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota. Japan is the third-largest maker of motor vehicles in the world.
The Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) at the International Space Station
Japan Airlines, the flag carrier of Japan
The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant
The Greater Tokyo Area is ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world.
The torii of Itsukushima Shinto Shrine near Hiroshima
Kanji and hiragana signs
Students celebrating after the announcement of the results of the entrance examinations to the University of Tokyo
12th-century illustrated handscroll of The Tale of Genji, a National Treasure
Noh performance at a Shinto shrine
Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day (成人の日) in Harajuku, Tokyo
A plate of nigiri-zushi
Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony

Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573).

Samurai in armor in the 1860s; hand-colored photograph by Felice Beato

Samurai

Samurai (侍) were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the late 12th century until their abolition in 1876.

Samurai (侍) were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the late 12th century until their abolition in 1876.

Samurai in armor in the 1860s; hand-colored photograph by Felice Beato
Kofun period helmet, gilt copper, 5th century, Ise Province
In the noh drama Sanjō Kokaji, the 10th-century blacksmith Munechika, aided by a kitsune (fox spirit), forges the tachi (samurai sword) Ko-Gitsune Maru.
The Gosannen War in the 11th century.
Heiji rebellion in 1159.
Samurai on horseback, wearing ō-yoroi armor, carrying a bow (yumi) and arrows in an yebira quiver
Samurai ō-yoroi armor, Kamakura period. Tokyo National Museum.
Men and women engaged in battle (16th century illustration).
Samurai of the Shōni clan gather to defend against Kublai Khan's Mongolian army during the first Mongol Invasion of Japan, 1274
Samurai Takezaki Suenaga of the Hōjō clan (right) defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) at the Battle of Torikai-Gata, 1274
Samurai boarding ships of the Second Mongolian invasion fleet, killing the Mongolian soldiers aboard, 1281.
Kasagake
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Himeji Castle, built from 1333 by the samurai Akamatsu Norimura of the Akamatsu clan.
A hatomune dou from the 16th century, the historic armor was once used by Kenshin Uesugi, one of the most powerful daimyōs of the Sengoku period.
Matchlock
Battle of Nagashino (1575)
Korean and Chinese soldiers assault the Japanese-built fortress at Ulsan during the Japanese invasions of Korea, 1597
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who would later command the invasion of Korea, leads a small group assaulting the castle on Mount Inaba. Print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi.
The Battle of Sekigahara, known as "Japan's decisive battle" (天下分け目の戦い, Tenka wakeme no tatakai'')
Samurai were the ruling class during the Tokugawa shogunate.
Kamei Koremi, a samurai and daimyō in the bakumatsu period
A studio photograph of a samurai, taken by Italian–British photographer Felice Beato, c. 1860
Iinuma Sadakichi, a Japanese samurai of the Aizu domain. He was the sole survivor of the famous group of young Byakkotai soldiers who committed suicide on Iimori Hill during the Battle of Aizu.
Samurai holding a severed head. After a battle, enemy's heads were collected and presented to the daimyo.
General Akashi Gidayu preparing to perform Seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582. He had just written his death poem.
Painting of Ōishi Yoshio performing seppuku, 1703
Edo-period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara. It began on 21 October 1600 with a total of 160,000 men facing each other.
Kōan Ogata, a samurai, physician and rangaku scholar in late Edo period Japan, noted for establishing an academy which later developed into Osaka University.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi with his wives and concubines.
Tomoe Gozen by Shitomi Kangetsu, ca. 18th century
Gyokusen-en, Japanese garden made by a Korean samurai Wakita Naokata and his descendants.
1890s photo showing a variety of armor and weapons typically used by samurai
Mounted samurai with horse armour (uma yoroi or bagai)
Kamakura samurai beheading (head collection)
Statue of samurai Kusunoki Masashige stationed outside Tokyo Imperial Palace.
Kasuga no Tsubone fighting robbers - Adachi Ginko (c.1880)
Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi, ca. 1885
Japanese woman preparing for ritual suicide
Yuki no Kata defending Anotsu castle. 18th century
A samurai class woman.
Cross sections of Japanese sword lamination methods.
Diagram of the Katana sword.
Samurai with various armor and weapons, c. 1802-1814
Antique Japanese tachi
Antique Japanese katana
Antique Japanese wakizashi
Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival
Japanese arrow stand with a pair of Yumi bows.
The bow of the Kamakura period
The arrow of the Kamakura period
Ō-yoroi, Kamakura period, 13th-14th century, Kasuga Grand Shrine, National Treasure
Dō-maru with Black and White Lacing. Muromachi period, 15th century, Tokyo National Museum, Important Cultural Property
Toyotomi Hidetsugu's gusoku armour, Azuchi-Momoyama period, 16th-17th century, Suntory Museum of Art
Karuta tatami dō gusoku, Edo period. A lightweight portable folding (tatami) armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta. The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing.
A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour (uma yoroi or bagai).
Shell-shaped cask (Oitaragainari kawari kabuto), iron and papier-mâché for the shell, beginning of the Edo Period.
Face guard (Menpō). Edo period. Tokyo Fuji Art Museum.
Samurai in armor in the 1860s; hand-colored photograph by Felice Beato
Kofun period helmet, gilt copper, 5th century, Ise Province

Musō Soseki (1275–1351) was a Zen monk who was advisor to both Emperor Go-Daigo and General Ashikaga Takauji (1304–58).

Kanrei

High political post in feudal Japan; it is usually translated as shōguns deputy.

High political post in feudal Japan; it is usually translated as shōguns deputy.

Following the fall of the Kamakura shogunate, and abolition of the Rokuhara Tandai position, Ashikaga Takauji created the post of Kantō Kanrei, or Shogun's Deputy in the East (Kantō generally refers to the area around and including modern Tokyo).