Ashkelon

AscalonMajdalal-MajdalAšqalunaAl MajdalAshkelon, IsraelEl Mejdelal-Madjal Ascalonal-MejdilAscalonian
Ashkelon or Ashqelon, also known as Ascalon (, Askálōn; عَسْقَلَان, ), is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv, and 13 km north of the border with the Gaza Strip.wikipedia
973 Related Articles

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
In the course of its history, it has been ruled by the Ancient Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Philistines, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Hasmoneans, the Romans, the Persians, the Arabs and the Crusaders, until it was destroyed by the Mamluks in 1270.
Scholars generally agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon.

Philistines

PhilistinePhilistiaPeleset
In the course of its history, it has been ruled by the Ancient Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Philistines, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Hasmoneans, the Romans, the Persians, the Arabs and the Crusaders, until it was destroyed by the Mamluks in 1270. Ashkelon was the oldest and largest seaport in Canaan, part of the pentapolis (a grouping of five cities) of the Philistines, north of Gaza and south of Jaffa.
Deuteronomist sources describe the "Five Lords of the Philistines" as based in five city-states of the southwestern Levant: Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north.

Israel

🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
Ashkelon or Ashqelon, also known as Ascalon (, Askálōn; عَسْقَلَان, ), is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv, and 13 km north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.

Scallion

spring oniongreen onionsscallions
Scallion and shallot are derived from Ascalonia, the Latin name for Ashkelon.
This name, in turn, seems to originate from the name of the ancient Canaan city of Ashkelon.

Southern District (Israel)

Southern DistrictSouthern IsraelSouth
Ashkelon or Ashqelon, also known as Ascalon (, Askálōn; عَسْقَلَان, ), is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv, and 13 km north of the border with the Gaza Strip.

Pentapolis

Five Cities
Ashkelon was the oldest and largest seaport in Canaan, part of the pentapolis (a grouping of five cities) of the Philistines, north of Gaza and south of Jaffa.
The Philistine Pentapolis: Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, all combined to make Philistia.

Gaza City

GazaGazanGaza District
Al-Majdal was the forward position of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force based in Gaza.
Josephus notes that Gaza was resettled under the rule of Herod Antipas, who cultivated friendly relations with Gazans, Ascalonites and neighboring Arabs after being appointed governor of Idumea by Jannaeus.

Shallot

shallotsAllium cepa'' var. ''aggregatumeschalot
Scallion and shallot are derived from Ascalonia, the Latin name for Ashkelon.
The name "shallot" comes from Ashkelon, an ancient Canaanite city, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated.

Yidya

Widia
undefined 1350 BC), there are seven letters to and from Ashkelon's (Ašqaluna) king Yidya, and the Egyptian pharaoh.
Yidya, and also Idiya, was the Canaanite mayor/ruler of ancient Ašqaluna/Ashkelon in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence.

1948 Arab–Israeli War

1948 Arab-Israeli WarWar of IndependenceIsraeli War of Independence
Al-Majdal on the eve of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War had 10,000 Arab inhabitants and in October 1948, the city accommodated thousands more refugees from nearby villages.
On 6 June, in the Battle of Nitzanim, Egyptian forces attacked the kibbutz of Nitzanim, located between Majdal (now Ashkelon) and Isdud, and the Israeli defenders surrendered after resisting for five days.

Assyria

AssyriansAssyrianAssyrian Empire
In the course of its history, it has been ruled by the Ancient Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Philistines, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Hasmoneans, the Romans, the Persians, the Arabs and the Crusaders, until it was destroyed by the Mamluks in 1270.
They also raided the Levant, Israel and Judah (where Ashkelon was sacked by the Scythians) and all the way into Egypt whose coasts were ravaged and looted with impunity.

Witch-hunt

witch huntwitch trialwitch trials
It had mostly friendly relations with the Hasmonean kingdom and Herodian kingdom of Judea, in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. In a significant case of an early witch-hunt, during the reign of the Hasmonean queen Salome Alexandra, the court of Simeon ben Shetach sentenced to death eighty women in Ashkelon who had been charged with sorcery.
In the Judaean Second Temple period, Rabbi Simeon ben Shetach in the 1st century BC is reported to have sentenced to death eighty women who had been charged with witchcraft on a single day in Ashkelon.

Baldwin III of Jerusalem

Baldwin IIIKing Baldwin IIIBalduini III
Three years later, after a five-month siege, the city was captured by a Crusader army led by King Baldwin III of Jerusalem.
Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

JerusalemKing of JerusalemCrusader
Until 1153, the Fatimids were able to launch raids into the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Ashkelon, which meant that the southern border of the Crusader States was constantly unstable.
According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, there were 1,000 Samaritans in Nablus, 200 in Caesarea and 300 in Ascalon.

Richard of Cornwall

RichardRichard, Earl of CornwallRichard, King of the Romans
Ashkelon subsequently remained part of the diminished territories of Outremer throughout most of the 13th century and Richard, Earl of Cornwall reconstructed and refortified the citadel during 1240–41, as part of the Crusader policy of improving the defences of coastal sites.
He was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and joined the Barons' Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon.

Sea Peoples

sea peopleInvasions of the Sea PeoplesPeleset
The Philistines conquered Canaanite Ashkelon about 1150 BC. Their earliest pottery, types of structures and inscriptions are similar to the early Greek urbanised centre at Mycenae in mainland Greece, adding weight to the hypothesis that the Philistines were one of the populations among the "Sea Peoples" that upset cultures throughout the eastern Mediterranean at that time.
The Nine Bows were acting under the leadership of the king of Libya and an associated near-concurrent revolt in Canaan involving Gaza, Ashkelon, Yenoam and the people of Israel.

Battle of Ascalon

Ascalon
In 1099, shortly after the Siege of Jerusalem (1099), an Egyptian Fatimid army that had been sent to relieve Jerusalem was defeated by a Crusader force at the Battle of Ascalon.
The army marched south from Jerusalem, approaching the vicinity of Ascalon on the 11th and capturing Egyptian spies who revealed al-Afdal's dispositions and strength.

Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon

documentation
The Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon, which was sent to the Jewish elders of Alexandria, describes their participation in the ransom effort and the ordeals suffered by many of the freed captives.
The Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon (c. 1100) was a communication written by six elders of the Karaite Jewish community of Ascalon and sent to their coreligionists in Alexandria nine months after the fall of Jerusalem during the First Crusade.

Israelites

IsraeliteIsraelchildren of Israel
Ashkelon became one of the five Philistine cities that were constantly warring with the Israelites and the Kingdom of Judah.
As distinct from the cities named (Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam) which are written with a toponymic marker, Israel is written hieroglyphically with a demonymic determinative indicating that the reference is to a human group, variously located in central Palestine or the highlands of Samaria.

Kingdom of Judah

Judahking of JudahJudahite
Ashkelon became one of the five Philistine cities that were constantly warring with the Israelites and the Kingdom of Judah.
After Hezekiah became sole ruler in c. 715 BCE, he formed alliances with Ashkelon and Egypt, and made a stand against Assyria by refusing to pay tribute.

Fulk, King of Jerusalem

Fulk VFulkFulk of Anjou
In response to these incursions into Outremer, King Fulk of Jerusalem constructed a number of Christian settlements around the city during the 1130s, in order to neutralise the threat of the Muslim garrison.
Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon.

Yosef Garfinkel

Yossi GarfinkelY. Garfinkel
In 1997–1998, a large scale salvage project was conducted at the site by Yosef Garfinkel on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and nearly 1,000 sqm were examined.
He has excavated numerous Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites, including Gesher, Yiftahel, Neolithic Ashkelon, Sha'ar HaGolan, Tel ‘Ali and Tel Tsaf.

Execration texts

execration text
Ashkelon is mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 11th dynasty as "Asqanu."
Ashkelon

Hasmonean dynasty

HasmoneanHasmoneansHasmonean Kingdom
In the course of its history, it has been ruled by the Ancient Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Philistines, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Hasmoneans, the Romans, the Persians, the Arabs and the Crusaders, until it was destroyed by the Mamluks in 1270. It had mostly friendly relations with the Hasmonean kingdom and Herodian kingdom of Judea, in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. In a significant case of an early witch-hunt, during the reign of the Hasmonean queen Salome Alexandra, the court of Simeon ben Shetach sentenced to death eighty women in Ashkelon who had been charged with sorcery.
Jonathan and Simon were now entitled to make conquests; Ashkelon submitted voluntarily while Gaza was forcibly taken.

1949 Armistice Agreements

armistice agreementsGeneral Armistice Agreement1949 Armistice Agreement
Ashkelon was formally granted to Israel in the 1949 Armistice Agreements.
Egypt insisted that Arab forces withdraw to the positions which they held on 14 October 1948, as per the Security Council Resolution S/1070 of 4 November 1948, and that the Israeli forces withdraw to positions north of the Majdal–Hebron road.