Ashkenaz is shown in Phrygia in this 1854 map of "The World as known to the Hebrews" (Lyman Coleman, Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography)

One of the descendants of Noah.

- Ashkenaz

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"Japhet third son of Noah", as depicted in Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum (c. 1553)

Gomer ( Gōmer, ; Γαμὲρ) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the "Table of Nations" in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10).


Geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the historic Armenian Highlands.

Urartu, 9th–6th centuries BC
Urartu under Arame of Urartu, 860–840 BC
Fragment of a bronze helmet from Argishti I's era. The "tree of life", popular among the ancient societies, is depicted. The helmet was discovered during the excavations of the fortress Of Teyshebaini on Karmir-Blur (Red Hill).
Niche and base for a destroyed Urartian stele, Van citadel, 1973.
Urartian stone arch near Van, 1973.
Urartian tomb complex, Van citadel, 1973.
Urartian royal tomb. Van citadel, 1973
Urartu 715–713 BC
A Urartian cauldron, in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara
Head of a Bull, Urartu, 8th century BC. This head was attached to the rim of an enormous cauldron similar to the one shown above. Walters Art Museum collections.
Silver bucket from Urartu in the Museum zu Allerheiligen in Schaffhausen Switzerland, allegedly from the tomb of Prince Inuspua, 810 BC
Bronze figurine of the winged goddess Tushpuea, with suspension hook
A modern depiction of the god Ḫaldi based on Urartian originals
Urartian cuneiform recording the foundation of Erebuni Fortress by Argishti.

Urartu/Ararat The name Urartu (Ուրարտու; Assyrian: māt Urarṭu; Babylonian: Urashtu; אֲרָרָט Ararat) comes from Assyrian sources. Shalmaneser I (1263–1234 BC) recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of "Uruatri". The Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, and names eight "lands" contained within Urartu (which at the time of the campaign were still disunited). The Assyrian Uruatri seems to correspond with the Azzi of contemporaneous Hittite texts. Urartu is cognate with the Biblical Ararat, Akkadian Urashtu, and Armenian Ayrarat. In addition to referring to the famous Biblical highlands, Ararat also appears as the name of a kingdom in Jeremiah 51:27, mentioned together with Minni and Ashkenaz. Mount Ararat is located approximately 120 km north of the kingdom's former capital, though the identification of the biblical "mountains of Ararat" with the Mt. Ararat is a modern identification based on postbiblical tradition.


Ancient kingdom located in northwestern Iran, south of Lake Urmia, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC. It neighbored Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer states between the two, such as Musasir and Zikirta.

The historical territory of the state of Mannaea

Together with Ararat and Ashkenaz, this is probably the same Minni from the Assyrian inscriptions, corresponding to Mannea.


Figure in the "table of nations" in Genesis 10, the list of descendants of Noah that represents the peoples known to the ancient Hebrews.

Thargamos and his sons. The order of the figures from left to right is: Movakan, Bardos, Kartlos, Hayk, Lekos, Thargamos, Caucas, Egros. An opening folio of the Georgian Chronicles (Vakhtangiseuli redaction), 1700s.
Red: Son of Japhet, Yellow: Son of Ham. Blue: Son of Shem

Togarmah is listed in as the third son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, brother of Ashkenaz and Riphath.


The term Japhetites (in adjective form Japhethitic or Japhetic) refers to the descendents of Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible.

This T and O map, from the first printed version of Isidore's Etymologiae (Augsburg 1472), identifies the three known continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) as respectively populated by descendants of Sem (Shem), Iafeth (Japheth) and Cham (Ham).



Riphath (Hebrew: ריפת) was great-grandson of Noah, grandson of Japheth, son of Gomer (Japheth's eldest), younger brother of Ashkenaz, and older brother of Togarmah according to the Table of Nations in the Hebrew Bible.


Legendary divine ancestor of the Germanic peoples.

Map showing the approximate locations of the major Germanic tribes in and around the geographical region of Germania as mentioned in Tacitus' work, the Germania
Tuisco from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

Later historians (e.g. Johannes Aventinus) managed to furnish numerous further details, including the assertion by James Anderson that this Tuiscon was in fact none other than the biblical Ashkenaz, son of Gomer.

Rabbi Samuel of Bamberg

Rabbi instructing children in 2004

Rabbi Samuel of Bamberg, or Rabbi Samuel ben Baruch of Bamberg, of Bamberg was a rabbi based in Bamberg, Germany circa 1220, in the Ashkenaz area.

Biblical terminology for race

Since early modern times, a number of biblical ethnonyms from the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 have been used as a basis for classifying human racial (cosmetic phenotypes) and national (ethnolinguistic cultural) identities.

The first depiction of historical ethnology of the world separated into the biblical sons of Noah: Semites, Hamites and Japhetites, 1771, Gatterer's Einleitung in die Synchronistische Universalhistorie. Gatterer explains that modern history has shown the truth of the biblical prediction of Japhetite supremacy . Click the image for a transcription of the text.
Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus, c. 100 AD
Woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle, showing Shem, Ham and Japheth over their corners of the world
This T and O map, from the first printed version of Isidoor's Etymologiae, identifies the three known continents as populated by descendants of Sem (Shem), Iafeth (Japheth) and Cham (Ham).
The oldest known map of Europe. The caption reads "Ecce sic diviserunt terram filii Noe post diluvium" (Lo thus did the sons of Noah divide the world after the Flood).

Ashkenaz: A people of the Black and Caspian sea areas, much later associated with German and East European Jews. The Ashkuza, who lived on the upper Euphrates in Armenia expelled the Cimmerians from their territory, and in Jeremiah 51:27 were said to march against Babylon along with two other northern kingdoms.

Urania of Worms

Urania bat Abraham of Worms (אורניאה בת אברהם, died 11 February 1275), also known as Orania and Orgiah, was a Jewish precentress in medieval Ashkenaz (Rhineland and the Palatinate).