Aspect ratio (image)

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The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height.wikipedia
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Academy ratio

Academy1.37:1Academy aspect ratio
With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, and the frame size reduced to maintain an image that is wider than tall, this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm × 16 mm (0.866 in × 0.630 in) or 1.375:1 aspect ratio.
The Academy ratio of 1.375:1 (abbreviated as 1.37:1) is an aspect ratio of a frame of 35mm film when used with 4-perf pulldown.

16:9 aspect ratio

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Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.:1), the universal video format of the 20th century, and 16:9 (1.:1), universal for high-definition television and European digital television.
16:9 (1.7:1) (16 9 = 4 2 3 2 ) is an aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9.

Widescreen

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When cinema attendance dropped, Hollywood created widescreen aspect ratios in order to differentiate the film industry from TV. Being one of the most common the 1.85:1 ratio.
Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios (relationship of image width to height) used in film, television and computer screens.

21:9 aspect ratio

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2.37:1 (64:27 = 4 3 :3 3 ): TVs were produced with this aspect ratio between 2009 and 2012 and marketed as "21:9 cinema displays".
21:9 (2.:1) is the approximated screen aspect ratio of the true value 64:27 (2.:1) in comparison to the common ratio of 16:9 (1.:1).

70 mm film

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Each frame is five perforations tall, with an aspect ratio of 2.2:1.

Univisium

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Since 1998, cinematographer Vittorio Storaro has advocated for a format named "Univisium" that uses a 2:1 format.
Univisium (macaronic Latin for "unity of images") is a proposed universal film format created by cinematographer Vittorio Storaro, ASC, AIC and his son, Fabrizio, to unify all future theatrical and television movies into one respective aspect ratio of 2:1 (marketed as 18:9).

Ultrawide formats

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Ultra-wide or Ultrawide formats refers to photos, videos, and displays, with aspect ratios significantly wider than 2:1.

Movietone sound system

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1.19:1 (19:16): Sometimes referred to as the Movietone ratio, this ratio was used briefly during the transitional period when the film industry was converting to sound, from 1926 to 1932 approx. It is produced by superimposing an optical soundtrack over a full-gate 1. aperture in printing, resulting in an almost square image. Films shot in this ratio are often projected or transferred to video incorrectly using a 1.37 mask or squashed to 1.37. Examples of films shot in the Movietone ratio include Sunrise, M and Hallelujah!.
Partly as a result of the single system experiments, the aspect ratio of approximately 1.19:1 that is created by printing an optical soundtrack on top of the 35mm full aperture became known colloquially as the "Movietone ratio".

Pillarbox

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With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information (zooming and cropping), by adding horizontal mattes (letterboxing) or vertical mattes (pillarboxing) to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching (hence distorting) the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions, possibly scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges (as in Wide Zoom mode).
It becomes necessary when film or video that was not originally designed for widescreen is shown on a widescreen display, or a narrower widescreen image is displayed within a wider aspect ratio, such as a 16:9 image in a 2.39:1 frame (common in cinemas).

Anamorphic format

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The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image's height; an anamorphic frame (since 1970, 2.39:1) is often incorrectly described (rounded) as 2.40:1 or 2.40 ("two-four-oh").
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.

Todd-AO

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Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope (up to 2.:1), Todd-AO (2.20:1), and VistaVision (initially 1.50:1, now 1.:1 to 2.00:1) to name just a few.
The aspect ratio of this format was 2.20:1.

Digital zoom

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With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information (zooming and cropping), by adding horizontal mattes (letterboxing) or vertical mattes (pillarboxing) to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching (hence distorting) the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions, possibly scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges (as in Wide Zoom mode).
Digital zoom is accomplished by cropping an image down to a centered area with the same aspect ratio as the original, and usually also interpolating the result back up to the pixel dimensions of the original.

Digital television

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Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.:1), the universal video format of the 20th century, and 16:9 (1.:1), universal for high-definition television and European digital television.
Digital television supports many different picture formats defined by the broadcast television systems which are a combination of size and aspect ratio (width to height ratio).

16:10 aspect ratio

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1.6:1 (16:10): Widescreen computer monitor ratio (for instance 1920×1200 resolution).
Until about 2003, most computer monitors had a 4:3 aspect ratio and some had 5:4.

Instagram

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In that sense, square video was popularized by mobile apps such as Instagram and has since been supported by other major social platforms including Facebook and Twitter.
The service was originally distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square (1:1) aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015.

35 mm film

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Generally, however, the 1.50:1 ratio of the initial VistaVision image was optically converted to a vertical print (on standard four-perforation 35 mm film) to show with the standard projectors available at theaters, and was then masked in the projector to the US standard of 1.85:1.
It was Edison's format, however, that became first the dominant standard and then the "official" standard of the newly formed Motion Picture Patents Company, a trust established by Edison, which agreed in 1909 to what would become the standard: 35 mm gauge, with Edison perforations and a 1.3:1 (4:3) aspect ratio.

DVD-Video

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Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9, and 16:9 is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD standard.
Video with 4:3 frame aspect ratio is supported in all video modes.

VistaVision

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Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope (up to 2.:1), Todd-AO (2.20:1), and VistaVision (initially 1.50:1, now 1.:1 to 2.00:1) to name just a few.
This process utilized a screen size that yielded an aspect ratio of 5 units wide by 3 units high, or 1.66:1.

16 mm film

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Super 16 mm film was frequently used for television production due to its lower cost, lack of need for soundtrack space on the film itself (as it is not projected but rather transferred to video), and aspect ratio similar to 16:9 (the native ratio of Super 16 mm is 15:9).
The picture taking area of standard 16 mm is 10.26 mm (0.404 in.) by 7.49 mm (0.295 in.), an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, the standard pre-widescreen Academy ratio for 35 mm. The "nominal" picture projection area (per SMPTE RP 20-2003) is 0.380 in by 0.284 in, and the maximum picture projection area (per SMPTE 233-2003) is 0.384 in by 0.286 in, each implying an aspect ratio of 1.34:1.

LG G6

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Moreover, some mobile devices, such as the LG G6, LG V30, Huawei Mate 10 Pro, Google Pixel 2 XL and OnePlus 5T, are embracing the 2:1 format (advertised as 18:9), as well as the Samsung Galaxy S8, Samsung Galaxy Note 8, Samsung Galaxy S9 and Samsung Galaxy Note 9 with a slightly similar 18.5:9 format.
The G6 is distinguished by its 5.7 display, which features a taller, 2:1 aspect ratio (marketed as 18:9), than the 16:9 aspect ratio of most smartphones.

Vertical video

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Another trend arising from the massive use of smartphones is Vertical video (9:16), that is intended for viewing in portrait mode.
Vertical video was historically shunned by professional video creators, marketers and creative agencies because it didn't fit the aspect ratio of established moving image forms, such as film and television, as well as newer web-based video players such as YouTube, meaning that black spaces appeared on either side of the image.

Page orientation

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Another trend arising from the massive use of smartphones is Vertical video (9:16), that is intended for viewing in portrait mode.
Besides describing the way documents can be viewed and edited, the concepts of "portrait" and "landscape" orientation can also be used to describe video and photography display options (where the concept of "aspect ratio" replaces that of "page orientation").

Film

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The most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1.
"Widescreen" refers to a larger width to height in the frame, compared to earlier historic aspect ratios.

Video

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1.:1 (4:3): 35 mm original silent film ratio, today commonly known in TV and video as 4:3. Also standard ratio for MPEG-2 video compression. This format is still used in many personal video cameras today and has influenced the selection or design of other aspect ratios. It is the standard Super 35mm ratio.
Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities.

List of common resolutions

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See list of common resolutions for a listing of computer resolutions and aspect ratios.
Storage aspect ratio (SAR): The horizontal to vertical ratio of solely the number of pixels in each direction.