Assisted reproductive technology

Illustration depicting intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), an example of assisted reproductive technology.
Steps of IVF Treatment
Number of assisted reproductive technology cycles in Europe between 1997 and 2014.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility.

- Assisted reproductive technology

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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Collected from a male.

Representation of the double helix structure of human DNA

PGD thus is an adjunct to assisted reproductive technology, and requires in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain oocytes or embryos for evaluation.

Sperm donation

Provision by a man of his sperm with the intention that it be used in the artificial insemination or other 'fertility treatment' of a woman or women who are not his sexual partners in order that they may become pregnant by him.

Diagram of a human sperm cell

Pregnancies are usually achieved by using donor sperm in assisted reproductive technology (ART) techniques which include artificial insemination (either by intracervical insemination (ICI) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) in a clinic, or intravaginal insemination at home).

Infertility

Inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilization.

There are many causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat.

In vitro fertilisation

Process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").

Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)
A triple-line endometrium is associated with better IVF outcomes.
A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilisation.
Demonstration of IVF
Normal Vaginal Canal Vs Menopause
Schematic illustration of artificial insemination.

IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy.

Surrogacy

Arrangement, often supported by a legal agreement, whereby a woman agrees to delivery/labour for another person or people, who will become the child's parent after birth.

Intended parents attend the birth of their child by a gestational surrogate.
Harinegameshin Transfers Mahavira's Embryo, from a Kalpasutra manuscript, c. 1300–1350, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Surrogacy is considered one of many assisted reproductive technologies.

Egg donation

Process by which a woman donates eggs to enable another woman to conceive as part of an assisted reproduction treatment or for biomedical research.

A human egg cell with surrounding corona radiata

Egg donation is a third party reproduction as part of assisted reproductive technology.

Embryo

Early stage of development of a multicellular organism.

A male human embryo, seven weeks old
or nine weeks' gestational age
Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa)
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing the embryo
Mouse and snake embryos

Creating and/or manipulating embryos via assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used for addressing fertility concerns in humans and other animals, and for selective breeding in agricultural species.

Preterm birth

Birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age, as opposed to full-term delivery at approximately 40 weeks.

Intubated preterm baby in an incubator
A new mother holds her premature baby at Kapiolani Medical Center NICU in Honolulu, Hawaii
Percentage premature births in England and Wales 2011, by age of mother and whether single or multiple birth.
Stages in prenatal development, with weeks and months numbered from last menstruation
Preterm birth at 32 weeks and 4 days with a weight of 2,000 g attached to medical equipment
Incubator for preterm baby
Preterm infants survival rates

In multiple pregnancies, which often result from use of assisted reproductive technology, there is a high risk of preterm birth.

Fertility medication

Fertility medications, also known as fertility drugs, are medications which enhance reproductive fertility.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in females, with estrogen exerting mainly negative feedback on FSH secretion from the pituitary gland.

Typically, other assisted reproductive technologies are used.

Implantation (human embryo)

Stage in embryonic development in which the blastocyst hatches as the embryo, and adheres to the wall of the uterus.

The sperm and ovum unite through fertilization, creating a conceptus that over the course of 8–9 days will implant in the uterine wall, where it will reside over the nine-month course of gestation.

In women with more than 3 implantation failures in assisted reproduction, a review of several small randomized controlled studies estimated that the use of adjunct low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) improves live birth rate by approximately 80%.