Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Clarence Thomas, since October 23, 1991<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Clarence Thomas| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=May 15, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200515180814/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Stephen Breyer, since August 3, 1994<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Stephen G. Breyer| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-stephen-breyer/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=November 18, 2019| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191118144739/http://www.supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-stephen-breyer/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Samuel Alito, since January 31, 2006<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-samuel-anthony-alito-jr/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=June 16, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200616065838/http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-samuel-anthony-alito-jr/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sonia Sotomayor, since August 8, 2009<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Sonia Sotomayor| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-sonia-sotomayor/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=March 4, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200304175151/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-sonia-sotomayor/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Elena Kagan, since August 7, 2010<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Elena Kagan| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-elena-kagan/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=May 24, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200524161410/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-elena-kagan/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Neil Gorsuch, since April 10, 2017<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Neil M. Gorsuch| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-neil-gorsuch/index.html| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=November 22, 2019| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191122034749/http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-neil-gorsuch/index.html| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Brett Kavanaugh, since October 6, 2018<ref>{{cite web| url=https://apnews.com/8234f0b8a6194d8b89ff79f9b0c94f35/Kavanaugh-confirmed,-quickly-sworn-in;-major-Trump-victory| title=Kavanaugh sworn to high court after rancorous confirmation| last1=Fram| first1=Alan| last2=Mascaro| first2=Lisa| last3=Daly| first3=Matthew| date=October 6, 2018| website=ap.org| location=New York, New York| access-date=October 6, 2018| archive-date=June 16, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200616065846/https://apnews.com/8234f0b8a6194d8b89ff79f9b0c94f35/Kavanaugh-confirmed,-quickly-sworn-in;-major-Trump-victory| url-status=live}}</ref>
Amy Coney Barrett, since October 27, 2020<ref>{{cite web|author=Barbara Sprunt|title=Amy Coney Barrett Confirmed To Supreme Court, Takes Constitutional Oath|url=https://www.npr.org/2020/10/26/927640619/senate-confirms-amy-coney-barrett-to-the-supreme-court|website=npr.org|date=October 26, 2020|access-date=October 26, 2020|archive-date=October 27, 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201027012410/https://www.npr.org/2020/10/26/927640619/senate-confirms-amy-coney-barrett-to-the-supreme-court|url-status=live}}</ref>

Any member of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.

- Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

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Anthony Kennedy

President Reagan and Kennedy meeting in the Oval Office on November 11, 1987

Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1988 until his retirement in 2018.

Plenary power

Complete and absolute power to take action on a particular issue, with no limitations.

While other Constitutional doctrines, such as the unenumerated powers of states and the rights of individuals, are widely held (both historically and currently) as limiting the plenary power of Congress, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist reflected that "one of the greatest 'fictions' of our federal system is that the Congress exercises only those powers delegated to it, while the remainder are reserved to the States or to the people. The manner in which this Court has construed the Commerce Clause amply illustrates the extent of this fiction. Although it is clear that the people, through the States, delegated authority to Congress to 'regulate Commerce ... among the several States' (Commerce Clause), one could easily get the sense from this Court's opinions that the federal system exists only at the sufferance of Congress."

Ketanji Brown Jackson

American attorney and jurist who has served as a United States circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit since 2021.

Jackson in 2020
Jackson with Justice Stephen Breyer
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Jackson in January 2022
Jackson delivers remarks on her nomination in the Grand Foyer of the White House, February 25, 2022
Jackson at the Judge James B. Parsons Legacy Dinner on February 24, 2020

She is an associate justice-designate of the Supreme Court of the United States, having received Senate confirmation on April 7, 2022.

Judiciary Act of 1869

The Judiciary Act of 1869 (41st Congress, Sess.

Joseph P. Bradley was the first justice appointed to the new seat created by the 1869 Act

22,, enacted April 10, 1869), formally An Act to amend the Judicial System of the United States and sometimes called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, provided that the Supreme Court of the United States would consist of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices, established separate judgeships for the U.S. circuit courts, and for the first time included a provision allowing federal judges to retire without losing their salary.

Advice and consent

English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

In April 2017, the Republican Party, led by Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, exercised the nuclear option in order to overcome Democratic opposition for Supreme Court nominations, confirming Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, despite what might have otherwise been a successful Democratic filibuster.

Warren E. Burger

American lawyer and jurist who served as the 15th chief justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986.

President Richard Nixon introduces Burger as his nominee for the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Official portrait of Warren Burger
With Betty Ford between them, Chief Justice Burger swears in President Gerald Ford following the resignation of Richard Nixon on August 9, 1974
Burger's burial site, next to his wife's, at Arlington National Cemetery

President Lyndon Johnson nominated sitting associate justice Abe Fortas to the position, but a Senate filibuster blocked his confirmation, and Johnson withdrew the nomination.

Clarence Thomas

Official portrait, 2007
Thomas with President Ronald Reagan in 1986, while serving as chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Clarence Thomas being sworn in as a member of the U.S. Supreme Court by Justice Byron White during an October 23, 1991, White House ceremony, as wife Virginia Thomas looks on
Thomas speaking to Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue in 2017

Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American lawyer and jurist who serves as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and the highest-ranking officer of the U.S. federal judiciary.

When deciding a case, however, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any other justice.

Sandra Day O'Connor

Supreme Court justice-nominee Sandra Day O'Connor talks with President Ronald Reagan outside the White House, July 15, 1981.
O'Connor is sworn in by Chief Justice Warren Burger as her husband John O'Connor looks on.
Justice O'Connor presents Alberto Gonzales to the audience after swearing him in as U.S. Attorney General, as Becky Gonzales looks on.
Justice O'Connor and her husband John O'Connor with President George W. Bush in May 2004.
Justice O'Connor's letter to Bush, dated July 1, 2005, announcing her retirement
O'Connor in 2008 with Harvard Law School Dean Elena Kagan. Kagan became the fourth female justice on the Court.
The first four women Supreme Court justices: O'Connor, Sonia Sotomayor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Elena Kagan, October 1, 2010. O'Connor was retired when the photograph was taken.

Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American retired attorney and politician who served as the first female associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006.

United States federal judge

In the United States, federal judges are judges who serve on courts established by Article Three of the U.S. Constitution.

Often known as "Article III judges", these judges include the chief justice and associate justices of the U.S. Supreme Court, the circuit judges of the U.S. courts of appeals, the district judges of the U.S. district courts, and the judges of the U.S. Court of International Trade.