Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Associate JusticeJusticeAssociate Justice of the Supreme CourtSupreme Court JusticeAssociate JusticesSupreme Court Associate JusticeAssociate Justice of the U.S. Supreme CourtJusticesU.S. Supreme Court JusticeAssociate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.wikipedia
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Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.
As later set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the Court consists of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices.

Clarence Thomas

ThomasJustice ThomasJustice Clarence Thomas
Currently, the senior associate justice is Clarence Thomas.
Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Sandra Day O'Connor

Justice O'ConnorSandra Day O’ConnorO'Connor
The title was shortened to "Justice" in 1980, a year before Sandra Day O'Connor became the first female justice. There are three living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006; David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; and Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who served from her 1981 appointment by President Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006.

William O. Douglas

DouglasJustice DouglasJustice William Douglas
When, after his retirement, William O. Douglas attempted to take a more active role than was customary, maintaining that it was his prerogative to do so because of his senior status, he was rebuffed by Chief Justice Warren Burger and admonished by the whole Court.
William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the United States Supreme CourtChief Justice of the Supreme Court
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is the title of all members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.
When deciding a case, however, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice.

David Souter

Justice SouterSouterDavid H. Souter
There are three living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006; David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; and Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018.
David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Anthony Kennedy

Justice KennedyKennedyAnthony M. Kennedy
There are three living retired associate justices at the present time: Sandra Day O'Connor, retired January 31, 2006; David Souter, retired June 29, 2009; and Anthony Kennedy, retired July 31, 2018.
Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1988 until his retirement in 2018.

John Rutledge

JohnRutledge, John
John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and also its second Chief Justice.

William Cushing

Cushing
William Cushing (March 1, 1732 – September 13, 1810) was one of the original five associate justices of the United States Supreme Court; confirmed by the United States Senate on September 26, 1789, he served until his death.

James Iredell

IredellIredell, Jamesyoungest appointee
James Iredell (October 5, 1751 – October 20, 1799) was one of the first Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.

William Paterson (judge)

William PatersonPatersonJudge William Paterson
He was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and the second governor of New Jersey.

Bushrod Washington

Justice WashingtonWashingtonGeorge Washington
Bushrod Washington (June 5, 1762 – November 26, 1829) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1798 to 1829.

Judiciary Act of 1869

9Circuit Judges Act of 18691869
The number of associate justices is eight, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869.
The Judiciary Act of 1869, sometimes called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, a United States statute, provided that the Supreme Court of the United States would consist of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices, established separate judgeships for the U.S. circuit courts, and for the first time included a provision allowing federal judges to retire without losing their salary.

Thomas Johnson (jurist)

Thomas JohnsonThomasTh. Johnson Jun r
Johnson was the first (non-Colonial) governor of Maryland, a delegate to the Continental Congress, and an associate justice of the Supreme Court.

Thomas Todd

Justice ToddTodd
Thomas Todd (January 23, 1765 – February 7, 1826) was an American attorney and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Henry Brockholst Livingston

Brockholst LivingstonHenry B. LivingstonLivingston
Henry Brockholst Livingston (November 25, 1757 – March 18, 1823) was an American Revolutionary War officer, a justice of the New York Court of Appeals and eventually an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Gabriel Duvall

Duvall
Duvall was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1835, during the Marshall Court and early-Taney Court eras.

Plenary power

plenaryplenary powersplenary authority
Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution grants plenary power to the president to nominate, and with the advice and consent (confirmation) of the Senate, appoint justices to the Supreme Court.
While other Constitutional doctrines, such as the unenumerated powers of states and the rights of individuals, are widely held (both historically and currently) as limiting the plenary power of Congress, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist reflected that "one of the greatest 'fictions' of our federal system is that the Congress exercises only those powers delegated to it, while the remainder are reserved to the States or to the people. The manner in which this Court has construed the Commerce Clause amply illustrates the extent of this fiction. Although it is clear that the people, through the States, delegated authority to Congress to 'regulate Commerce ... among the several States' (Commerce Clause), one could easily get the sense from this Court's opinions that the federal system exists only at the sufferance of Congress."

Smith Thompson

Thompson
Smith Thompson (January 17, 1768 – December 18, 1843) was a United States Secretary of the Navy from 1819 to 1823, and a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1823 until his death in 1843.

Henry Baldwin (judge)

Henry BaldwinBaldwinJustice Baldwin
Henry Baldwin (January 14, 1780 – April 21, 1844) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 6, 1830, to April 21, 1844.

James Moore Wayne

James M. WayneJames WayneWayne
James Moore Wayne (1790 – July 5, 1867) was an American attorney, judge and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1835 to 1867.

United States federal judge

United States District JudgeUnited States Circuit Judgefederal judge
Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution effectively grants life tenure to associate justices, and all other federal judges, which ends only when a justice dies, retires, resigns, or is removed from office by impeachment.
Every judge appointed to such a court may be categorized as a federal judge; such positions include the chief justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court, circuit judges of the courts of appeals, and district judges of the United States district courts.

Robert Trimble

Judge Robert TrimbleTrimble
Robert Trimble (November 17, 1776 – August 25, 1828) was a lawyer and jurist who served as Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, as United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky and as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1826 to his death in 1828.

Warren E. Burger

Warren BurgerChief Justice BurgerBurger
When, after his retirement, William O. Douglas attempted to take a more active role than was customary, maintaining that it was his prerogative to do so because of his senior status, he was rebuffed by Chief Justice Warren Burger and admonished by the whole Court.
President Lyndon Johnson nominated sitting Associate Justice Abe Fortas to the position, but a Senate filibuster blocked his confirmation.

John Catron

Catron
John Catron (January 7, 1786 – May 30, 1865) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1837 to 1865, during the Taney Court era.