Associated state

free associationassociated statesBritish associated statefreely associateddependent territory of New Zealandfree association with New Zealandfree-associationFreely Associated Statefreely associated statesindependence-association
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.wikipedia
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Compact of Free Association

Compacts of Free AssociationFreely Associated Statesfree association
The details of such free association are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved. The Federated States of Micronesia (since 1986), the Marshall Islands (since 1986), and Palau (since 1994) are associated with the United States under what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory.
The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States and the three Pacific Island sovereign states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.

Niue

Niue IslandNiue-FekaiNiueans
In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue, the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration.
Niue is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand; and New Zealand conducts most diplomatic relations on its behalf.

Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
Puerto Rico is defined as an "associated free state" (Estado Libre Asociado) in its 1952 constitution.
The official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico ("free associated state of Puerto Rico"), while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Federated States of Micronesia

MicronesiaMicronesianMicronesia, Federated States of
The Federated States of Micronesia (since 1986), the Marshall Islands (since 1986), and Palau (since 1994) are associated with the United States under what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory.
The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent republic associated with the United States.

Marshall Islands

MarshallsRepublic of the Marshall IslandsMarshall
The Federated States of Micronesia (since 1986), the Marshall Islands (since 1986), and Palau (since 1994) are associated with the United States under what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

Palau

Palau IslandsPalausRepublic of Palau
The Federated States of Micronesia (since 1986), the Marshall Islands (since 1986), and Palau (since 1994) are associated with the United States under what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory.
Politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, funding, and access to social services.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue, the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration.
The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica.

West Indies Associated States

Associated StateAssociated Statehood Act 1967Associated Statehood
The details of such free association are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved.
The West Indies Associated States was the collective name for a number of islands in the Eastern Caribbean whose status changed from being British colonies to states in free association with the United Kingdom in 1967.

Grenada

GrenadianGRDTheophilus A. Marryshow
These were former British colonies in the Caribbean: Antigua (1967–1981), Dominica (1967–1978), Grenada (1967–1974), Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (1967–1983), Saint Lucia (1967–1979), and Saint Vincent (1969–1979).
On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an associated state.

Protectorate

British Protectorateprotectionprotectorates
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted. Informally it can be considered more widely: from a post-colonial form of amical protection, or protectorate, to confederation of unequal members when the lesser partner(s) delegate(s) to the major one (often the former colonial power) some authority normally exclusively retained by a sovereign state, usually in such fields as defense and foreign relations, while often enjoying favorable economic terms such as market access.

Anguilla

AnguillianAnguilaAnguillan House of Assembly
Within a few years after the status of associated state was created, all six of the former associated states requested and were granted full independence, except for Anguilla within the former St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla union, which separated from the associated state before independence and remains a United Kingdom dependent territory.
After a brief period as part of the West Indies Federation (1958–62), the island of Anguilla became part of the associated state of Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla with full internal autonomy in 1967.

Federacy

federaciesautonomousself-governed
A federacy, a type of government where at least one of the subunits in an otherwise unitary state enjoys autonomy like a subunit within a federation, is similar to an associated state, with such subunit(s) having considerable independence in internal issues, except foreign affairs and defence.
A federacy also differs from an associated state, such as the Federated States of Micronesia (in free association with the United States) and Cook Islands and Niue (which form part of the Realm of New Zealand).

2006 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

2006referendum on independencereferendum on self-determination
Tokelau (a dependent territory of New Zealand) voted on a referendum in February 2006 to determine whether it wanted to remain a New Zealand territory or become the third state in free association with New Zealand (after the Cook Islands and Niue).
The defeated proposal would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
In foreign relations both interact as sovereign states, and they have been allowed to sign on as a state to United Nations treaties and bodies.
The Cook Islands and Niue, both states in free association with New Zealand, are full members of several UN specialized agencies and have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognized by the Secretariat.

2007 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

2007second referendumanother one in October 2007
A repeat referendum in October 2007 under United Nations supervision yielded similar results, with the proposed free association falling 16 votes short of approval.
Had it been successful, the referendum would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue.

Tokelau

Tokelau IslandsUnion IslandsTK
Tokelau (a dependent territory of New Zealand) voted on a referendum in February 2006 to determine whether it wanted to remain a New Zealand territory or become the third state in free association with New Zealand (after the Cook Islands and Niue).
On 11 November 2004, Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand.

Member states of the United Nations

UN member statesUnited Nations member statesmember states
The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are not members of the UN, but are members of specialized agencies of the UN such as WHO and UNESCO, and have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognized by United Nations Secretariat in 1992 and 1994 respectively.

Cook Islands

Cook IslandCookThe Cook Islands
In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue, the details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.

Saint Vincent (Antilles)

Saint VincentSt. VincentSt Vincent
These were former British colonies in the Caribbean: Antigua (1967–1981), Dominica (1967–1978), Grenada (1967–1974), Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (1967–1983), Saint Lucia (1967–1979), and Saint Vincent (1969–1979).
St. Vincent was granted associate statehood status by Britain on 27 October 1969, giving it complete control over its internal affairs.

Dependent territory

dependent territoriesdependencydependencies
Tokelau (a dependent territory of New Zealand) voted on a referendum in February 2006 to determine whether it wanted to remain a New Zealand territory or become the third state in free association with New Zealand (after the Cook Islands and Niue).
The Cook Islands and Niue are officially termed associated states.

External association

Nicholas Mansergh traces the first reference to "external association" to 27 July 1921, preceding a proposal by de Valera on 10 August for a treaty of free association between the Irish Republic and Great Britain.

United Nations General Assembly

General AssemblyUN General AssemblyGeneral Assembly of the United Nations
The details of such free association are contained in United Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI, a Compact of Free Association or Associated Statehood Act and are specific to the countries involved.

Asymmetric federalism

Asymmetrical federalismasymmetricAsymmetric federation
Informally it can be considered more widely: from a post-colonial form of amical protection, or protectorate, to confederation of unequal members when the lesser partner(s) delegate(s) to the major one (often the former colonial power) some authority normally exclusively retained by a sovereign state, usually in such fields as defense and foreign relations, while often enjoying favorable economic terms such as market access.

Microstate

microstatesstateletmicro-state
According to some scholars, a form of association based on benign protection and delegation of sovereignty can be seen as a defining feature of microstates.