Asteroid

asteroidsminor bodyMinor Planetminor bodiesasteroid collisionbouldercomputerized search for asteroidsdirectly explore asteroidsexoasteroidGame Room - Asteroids Deluxe
Asteroids are minor planets, especially of the inner Solar System.wikipedia
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Asteroid belt

main-beltMain beltmain-belt asteroid
As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered that were found to have volatile-rich surfaces similar to comets, these came to be distinguished from the objects found in the main asteroid belt.
The asteroid belt is a ring-shaped region in the Solar System, located roughly between the orbits of the planets Jupiter and Mars, that is occupied by a great many solid, irregularly shaped bodies, of many sizes but much smaller than planets, called asteroids or minor planets.

Jupiter trojan

trojanJupiter trojansTrojan asteroids
The vast majority of known asteroids orbit within the main asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, or are co-orbital with Jupiter (the Jupiter trojans).
The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or simply Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.

Comet

cometslong-period cometJupiter-family comet
These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not resolve into a disc in a telescope and was not observed to have characteristics of an active comet such as a tail. Asteroids are somewhat arbitrarily differentiated from comets and meteoroids.
Comets are distinguished from asteroids by the presence of an extended, gravitationally unbound atmosphere surrounding their central nucleus.

Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
There exist millions of asteroids, many the shattered remnants of planetesimals, bodies within the young Sun's solar nebula that never grew large enough to become planets.
Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.

S-type asteroid

SS-typestony asteroids
Individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra, with the majority falling into three main groups: C-type, M-type, and S-type.
S-type asteroids are asteroids with a spectral type that is indicative of a siliceous (i.e. stony) mineralogical composition, hence the name.

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
The vast majority of known asteroids orbit within the main asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, or are co-orbital with Jupiter (the Jupiter trojans).
These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.

Meteoroid

meteormeteorsfireball
Asteroids are somewhat arbitrarily differentiated from comets and meteoroids.
Meteoroids are significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to one-meter-wide objects.

Minor planet

planetoidminor planetsplanetoids
Asteroids are minor planets, especially of the inner Solar System.
Minor planets can be dwarf planets, asteroids, trojans, centaurs, Kuiper belt objects, and other trans-Neptunian objects.

C-type asteroid

CcarbonaceousC-type
Individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra, with the majority falling into three main groups: C-type, M-type, and S-type.
C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids.

B612 Foundation

B612Clark ChapmanDaniel David Durda
In April 2018, the B612 Foundation reported "It's 100 percent certain we'll be hit [by a devastating asteroid], but we're not 100 percent sure when."
The B612 Foundation is a private nonprofit foundation headquartered in Mill Valley, California, United States, dedicated to planetary science and planetary defense against asteroids and other near-Earth object (NEO) impacts.

M-type asteroid

M-typeMM-type spectrum
Individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra, with the majority falling into three main groups: C-type, M-type, and S-type.
Differentiation was a fundamental process in shaping many asteroids and all terrestrial planet

Minor Planet Center

Minor Planet Electronic CircularMPCMinor Planet Circular
, the Minor Planet Center had data on almost 745,000 objects in the inner and outer Solar System, of which almost 504,000 had enough information to be given numbered designations.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.

2 Pallas

Pallasasteroid Pallas(2) Pallas
Three other asteroids (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta) were discovered over the next few years, with Vesta found in 1807.
Pallas (minor-planet designation: 2 Pallas) is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.

3 Juno

Juno(3) Junoasteroid
Three other asteroids (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta) were discovered over the next few years, with Vesta found in 1807.
Juno (minor-planet designation: 3 Juno) is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.

Distant minor planet

distantdistant objectminor planets in the outer Solar System
As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered that were found to have volatile-rich surfaces similar to comets, these came to be distinguished from the objects found in the main asteroid belt.
A distant minor planet, or distant object, is any minor planet found beyond Jupiter in the outer Solar System that is not commonly thought of as an "asteroid".

5 Astraea

AstraeaAstræa
Fifteen years later, he found 5 Astraea, the first new asteroid in 38 years.
Astraea (minor planet designation: 5 Astraea) is a large asteroid from the asteroid belt.

Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar Systemouter planets
Asteroids are minor planets, especially of the inner Solar System.
The remaining objects of the Solar System (including the four terrestrial planets, the dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets) together comprise less than 0.002% of the Solar System's total mass.

6 Hebe

Hebe
He also found 6 Hebe less than two years later.
Hebe (minor planet designation: 6 Hebe) is a large main-belt asteroid, containing around half a percent of the mass of the belt.

9 Metis

Metis
Metis (minor planet designation: 9 Metis) is one of the larger main-belt asteroids.

8 Flora

Flora
Flora (minor planet designation: 8 Flora) is a large, bright main-belt asteroid.

Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres1 CeresAtmosphere of Ceres
The sizes of asteroids varies greatly; the largest, Ceres, is almost across.
Although they did not discover Ceres, they later found several large asteroids.

Hermann Goldschmidt

Hermann Mayer Salomon GoldschmidtH. GoldschmidtGoldschmidt, H.
Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J. R. Hind, Annibale de Gasparis, Robert Luther, H. M. S. Goldschmidt, Jean Chacornac, James Ferguson, Norman Robert Pogson, E. W. Tempel, J. C. Watson, C. H. F. Peters, A. Borrelly, J. Palisa, the Henry brothers and Auguste Charlois.
His discovery of the asteroid Lutetia in 1852 was followed by further findings and by 1861 Goldschmidt had discovered 14 asteroids.

Auguste Charlois

A. CharloisCharlois, A.
Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J. R. Hind, Annibale de Gasparis, Robert Luther, H. M. S. Goldschmidt, Jean Chacornac, James Ferguson, Norman Robert Pogson, E. W. Tempel, J. C. Watson, C. H. F. Peters, A. Borrelly, J. Palisa, the Henry brothers and Auguste Charlois.
Auguste Honoré Charlois (November 26, 1864 – March 26, 1910) was a French astronomer who discovered 99 asteroids while working at the Nice Observatory in southeastern France.

Johann Palisa

J. PalisaPalisaPalisa, J.
Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J. R. Hind, Annibale de Gasparis, Robert Luther, H. M. S. Goldschmidt, Jean Chacornac, James Ferguson, Norman Robert Pogson, E. W. Tempel, J. C. Watson, C. H. F. Peters, A. Borrelly, J. Palisa, the Henry brothers and Auguste Charlois.
He was a prolific discoverer of asteroids, discovering 122 in all, from 136 Austria in 1874 to 1073 Gellivara in 1923.

Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters

C. H. F. PetersChristian PetersCHF Peters
Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J. R. Hind, Annibale de Gasparis, Robert Luther, H. M. S. Goldschmidt, Jean Chacornac, James Ferguson, Norman Robert Pogson, E. W. Tempel, J. C. Watson, C. H. F. Peters, A. Borrelly, J. Palisa, the Henry brothers and Auguste Charlois.
Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters (September 19, 1813 – July 18, 1890) was a German–American university teacher and astronomer at the Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College, New York, and a pioneer in the study and visual discovery of asteroids.