Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmaticallergic asthmaasthma medicationanti-asthmaticasthma attackseosinophilic asthmaantiasthmaticasthma exacerbation
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.wikipedia
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Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Shortness of breath

dyspnearespiratory distressdyspnoea
Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety.

Bronchospasm

bronchial attacksbronchial spasmsmaller airways known as the bronchi
It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and easily triggered bronchospasms.
Bronchospasms occur in asthma, chronic bronchitis and anaphylaxis.

Air pollution

air qualityair pollutantemissions
Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens.
The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, asthma and worsening of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions.

Salbutamol

albuterolVentolinSalbutamol (Albuterol)
Treatment of rapidly worsening symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist such as salbutamol and corticosteroids taken by mouth.
It is used to treat asthma, including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist

long-acting β 2 agonistlong acting beta-adrenoceptor agonistlong-acting beta agonist
Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene agents may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled.
Long-acting β adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs, more specifically, long-acting β 2 adrenergic receptor agonists) are usually prescribed for moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Eosinophil

eosinophilseosinophil granulocyteEosino
During recovery from an asthma attack (exacerbation), it may appear pus-like due to high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils.
Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma.

Beta2-adrenergic agonist

β 2 adrenoreceptor agonistbeta-2 agonistsβ 2 adrenergic receptor agonist
Treatment of rapidly worsening symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist such as salbutamol and corticosteroids taken by mouth.
They are primarily used to treat asthma and other pulmonary disorders, such as COPD.

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, air pollution, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, post-nasal drip, chronic bronchitis, lung tumors, heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.

Atopy

atopicatopic disordersallergic diseases
It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic, where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.
A person with atopy typically presents with one or more of the following: eczema (atopic dermatitis), allergic rhinitis (hay fever), or allergic asthma.

Atopic dermatitis

atopic eczemaatopiceczema
A triad of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma is called atopy.
Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma.

Hygiene hypothesis

David P. StrachanDavid Strachanless exposure to intestinal infections
The hygiene hypothesis attempts to explain the increased rates of asthma worldwide as a direct and unintended result of reduced exposure, during childhood, to non-pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The original formulation of the hygiene hypothesis dates from 1989, when David Strachan proposed that lower incidence of infection in early childhood could be an explanation for the rise in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever during the 20th century.

Hives

urticariaurticarialpapular urticaria
Individuals with certain types of urticaria may also experience symptoms of asthma.
Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma.

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Churg-Strauss syndromeChurg–Strauss syndromeAllergic angiitis
Asthma has been associated with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg–Strauss syndrome), an autoimmune disease and vasculitis.
The early (prodromal) stage is marked by airway inflammation; almost all patients experience asthma and/or allergic rhinitis.

Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
The majority of the evidence does not support a causal role between acetaminophen (paracetamol) or antibiotic use and asthma.
An association exists between paracetamol use and asthma, but whether this association is causal is still debated.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidBufferinASA
Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers.
More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.

Omalizumab

Xolairanti-IgEmonoclonal anti-IgE antibodies
There is limited evidence to guide possible approaches to reducing autumn exacerbations, but while costly, seasonal omalizumab treatment from four to six weeks before school return may reduce autumn asthma exacerbations.
It has been used to try to control severe allergic asthma, which does not respond to high doses of corticosteroids and less widely for chronic spontaneous urticaria.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

acid refluxgastroesophageal refluxGERD
A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in people with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea.
GERD has been linked to a variety of respiratory and laryngeal complaints such as laryngitis, chronic cough, pulmonary fibrosis, earache, and asthma, even when not clinically apparent.

Propranolol

propanololInderalDexpropranolol
Beta blocker medications such as propranolol can trigger asthma in those who are susceptible.
It may worsen the symptoms of asthma.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
However, some conditions such as asthma and pneumonia do not follow this convention.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
There is a correlation between obesity and the risk of asthma with both having increased in recent years.
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and asthma.

Magnesium sulfate

Epsom saltsEpsom saltmagnesium sulphate
In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required.

Spirometry

lung functionFEV1forced expiratory volume
Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry lung function testing.
Spirometry is helpful in assessing breathing patterns that identify conditions such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.

Obstructive lung disease

obstructiveobstructive pneumonitisobstructive airway disease
Although asthma is a chronic obstructive condition, it is not considered as a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as this term refers specifically to combinations of disease that are irreversible such as bronchiectasis and emphysema.
Types of obstructive lung disease include; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).