Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomersastronomicastronomicallystellar astronomyastronomical and planetaryastronomical instrumentsastronomical observationastronomical observations
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.wikipedia
5,027 Related Articles

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.
Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.

Celestial event

phenomenaphenomenoncelestial phenomena
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
A celestial event is an astronomical phenomenon of interest that involves one or more celestial objects.

Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomerastronomyGreek
The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Persia, India, China, Egypt, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop.
Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.

Babylonian astronomy

Babylonian astronomersBabylonianastronomer
The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Persia, India, China, Egypt, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop.
In conjunction with their mythology, the Sumerians developed a form of astronomy/astrology that had an influence on Babylonian culture.

Night sky

night skiessky''' of the Earthsky of Earth
The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky.
The term night sky, usually associated with astronomy from Earth, refers to the nighttime appearance of celestial objects like stars, planets, and the Moon, which are visible in a clear sky between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.

Astrometry

astrometricastrometricalastrometrist
Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

Observational astronomy

astronomical observationobservationsobservational
Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into observational and theoretical branches.
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.

Astrophysics

astrophysicistastrophysicaltheoretical astrophysics
Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.
Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.

Theoretical astronomy

mathematical astronomytheoreticalmathematical astronomers
Professional astronomy is split into observational and theoretical branches.
Ptolemy's Almagest, although a brilliant treatise on theoretical astronomy combined with a practical handbook for computation, nevertheless includes many compromises to reconcile discordant observations.

Observatory

astronomical observatoryobservatoriesastronomical observatories
In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year.
Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed.

Geocentric model

geocentricPtolemaicgeocentrism
The Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Universe, or the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the Universe with Earth at the center.

Astrology and astronomy

Astronomyastronomer/astrologerastronomers
Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now entirely distinct.
Astronomy, the study of objects and phenomena originating beyond the Earth's atmosphere, is a science and is a widely studied academic discipline.

Astronomer

astronomersastrophysicistprofessional astronomers
Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics," partly depending on whether the department is historically affiliated with a physics department, and many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

Egyptian astronomy

EgyptianEgyptian astronomersastronomy
The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Persia, India, China, Egypt, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop.
Astronomy played a considerable part in fixing the dates of religious festivals and determining the hours of night, and temple astrologers were especially adept at watching the stars and observing the conjunctions and risings of the Sun, Moon, and planets, as well as the lunar phases.

Astrology

astrologerastrologicalastrologers
Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects.
Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine.

Heliocentrism

heliocentricheliocentric modelheliocentric theory
In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, and he proposed a model of the solar system where the Earth and planets rotated around the sun, now called the heliocentric model.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

Frank Shu

Frank H. Shu
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject.
He is currently professor of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley and University of California, San Diego and the university president of the National Tsing Hua University.

Antikythera mechanism

Orrery
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 150–80 BC) was an early analog computer designed to calculate the location of the Sun, Moon, and planets for a given date.
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.

Astrolabe

astrolabesAstrolabastrelabie
In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and invented the earliest known astronomical devices such as the astrolabe.
An astrolabe ( astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; Astaara yab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the altitude above the horizon of a celestial body, day or night.

Astronomical clock

astronomicalastronomical clock towerastronomical clock towers
Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.

The Astrophysical Journal

Astrophysical JournalApJApJ.
Some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, and Astronomy and Astrophysics.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

Astrology in medieval Islam

astrologerastrologyArabian, Persian
As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Persia, India, China, Egypt, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop.
After the advent of Islam, the Muslims needed to determine the time of the prayers, the direction of the Kaaba, and the correct orientation of the mosque, all of which helped give a religious impetus to the study of astronomy and contributed towards the belief that the heavenly bodies were influential upon terrestrial affairs as well as the human condition.

Richard of Wallingford

Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336) made major contributions to astronomy and horology, including the invention of the first astronomical clock, the Rectangulus which allowed for the measurement of angles between planets and other astornomical bodies, as well as an equatorium called the Albion which could be used for astronomical calculations such as lunar, solar and planetary longitudes and could predict eclipses.
Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336) was an English mathematician, astronomer, horologist, and cleric who made major contributions to astronomy and horology while serving as abbot of St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.