Asylum seeker

asylum seekersasylumasylum-seekerasylum-seekersseeking asylumasylum seekingseek asylumsought asylumapplied for asylumAsylum applicants
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee applicant) is a person who flees their home country, enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.wikipedia
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Refugee

refugeesrefugee statusasylum
An asylum seeker is a type of migrant and may be a refugee, a displaced person, but not an economic migrant. It often happens that the country neither recognizes the refugee status of the asylum seekers nor sees them as legitimate migrants and thus treats them as illegal aliens. The asylum seeker may be recognised as a refugee and given refugee status if the person's circumstances fall into the definition of "refugee" according to the 1951 Refugee Convention or other refugee laws, such as the European Convention on Human Rights – if asylum is claimed within the European Union.
Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR if they formally make a claim for asylum.

Forced displacement

displaced persondisplaced personsforced migration
An asylum seeker is a type of migrant and may be a refugee, a displaced person, but not an economic migrant.

Illegal immigration

illegal immigrantillegal immigrantsundocumented immigrants
The relevant immigration authorities of the country of asylum determine whether the asylum seeker will be granted protection and become an officially recognised refugee (asylee) or whether asylum will be refused and asylum seeker becomes an illegal immigrant who has to leave the country and may even be deported. As their immigration policy often focuses on the fight of illegal immigration and the strengthening of border controls it deters displaced persons from entering territory in which they could lodge an asylum claim.
If asylum seekers are not granted some kind of legal protection status, then they may have to leave the country, or stay as illegal immigrants.

Subsidiary protection

Subsidiary protection is an international protection for persons seeking asylum, but do not qualify as refugees.
Subsidiary protection is international protection for persons seeking asylum who do not qualify as refugees.

Voluntary return

voluntary repatriationreturnreturn home voluntarily
Some failed asylum seekers are allowed to remain temporarily, some return home voluntarily and some are forcibly returned.
Voluntary return or voluntary repatriation is usually the return of an illegal immigrant or over-stayer, a rejected asylum seeker, a refugee or displaced person, an unaccompanied minor, and sometimes a second-generation immigrant, who is unable or unwilling to remain in the host country and who volunteers to return to their country of origin, or that of their ancestors.

Non-refoulement

refoulementforcibly repatriateforcibly repatriated
Refugees cannot be deported or otherwise forced to go back to their country of origin as this would be refoulement, which is against international law.
Non-refoulement is a fundamental principle of international law that forbids a country receiving asylum seekers from returning them to a country in which they would be in likely danger of persecution based on "race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion".

Sanctuary city

sanctuary citiessanctuarysanctuary state
In the United Kingdom and Ireland, and in continental Europe, sanctuary city refers to cities that are committed to welcoming refugees, asylum seekers and others who are seeking safety.

Forced displacement in popular culture

Forced displacement and the experiences of refugees, asylum seekers and otherwise forcibly displaced people became of increasing interest in the popular culture since 2015 with the European migrant crisis.

Alien (law)

alienaliensforeigners
It often happens that the country neither recognizes the refugee status of the asylum seekers nor sees them as legitimate migrants and thus treats them as illegal aliens.
Every foreign national, including a refugee or an asylum seeker, is considered as an alien unless his or her status has been lawfully upgraded.

Immigration detention

mandatory detentiondetentionImmigration Removal Centre
The latter are most often placed in immigration detention before being deported.
The government then begun to apply the 1970 Chapter 217 of the Laws of Malta (Immigration Act), providing for detention for all "prohibited migrants", including prospective asylum seekers, soon after apprehension by the immigration authorities.

Asylum in Australia

asylum seekersasylum seekerpolitical asylum in Australia
In October 2009, the Australian customs boat Oceanic Viking was involved in an operation to apprehend 78 Sri Lankan asylum seekers and move them to an Australia-funded immigration detention centre on the Indonesian island of Bintan for processing.

Right of asylum

political asylumasylumpolitical refugee
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee applicant) is a person who flees their home country, enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.

Immigration

immigrantimmigrantsimmigrated
An asylum seeker is a type of migrant and may be a refugee, a displaced person, but not an economic migrant.

Economic migrant

economic migrantseconomic migrationmigrant
An asylum seeker is a type of migrant and may be a refugee, a displaced person, but not an economic migrant.

Deportation

deporteddeportexpulsion
The relevant immigration authorities of the country of asylum determine whether the asylum seeker will be granted protection and become an officially recognised refugee (asylee) or whether asylum will be refused and asylum seeker becomes an illegal immigrant who has to leave the country and may even be deported.

Refugee law

asylum lawlegally definedrefugee rights
The asylum seeker may be recognised as a refugee and given refugee status if the person's circumstances fall into the definition of "refugee" according to the 1951 Refugee Convention or other refugee laws, such as the European Convention on Human Rights – if asylum is claimed within the European Union.

European Convention on Human Rights

European Convention of Human RightsECHRConvention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
The asylum seeker may be recognised as a refugee and given refugee status if the person's circumstances fall into the definition of "refugee" according to the 1951 Refugee Convention or other refugee laws, such as the European Convention on Human Rights – if asylum is claimed within the European Union.

Border control

border crossingimmigration policyInternational Zone
As their immigration policy often focuses on the fight of illegal immigration and the strengthening of border controls it deters displaced persons from entering territory in which they could lodge an asylum claim.

Illegal entry

illegally entering the countryillegal border crossingsillegal entries
The lack of opportunities to legally access the asylum procedures can force asylum seekers to undertake often expensive and hazardous attempts at illegal entry.

Third country resettlement

resettlementrefugee resettlementresettled
In recent years, the public as well as policy makers of many countries are focussing more and more on refugees arriving through third country resettlement and pay less and less attention to asylum seekers and those who have already been granted refugee status but did not come through resettlement.

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

1951 Refugee ConventionRefugee Convention1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
The asylum seeker may be recognised as a refugee and given refugee status if the person's circumstances fall into the definition of "refugee" according to the 1951 Refugee Convention or other refugee laws, such as the European Convention on Human Rights – if asylum is claimed within the European Union. As of 1 July 2013, there were 145 parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and 146 to the 1967 Protocol.

Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees

1967 Protocol1967 Protocol relating to the Status of RefugeesProtocol
As of 1 July 2013, there were 145 parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and 146 to the 1967 Protocol.

Government agency

agencygovernment agenciesGovernmental organization
The practical determination of whether a person is a refugee or not is most often left to certain government agencies within the host country.

Temporary protection visa

Temporary protection visas are used to persons in Australia who applied for refugee status after making an unauthorised arrival.

Prima facie

Prima facie caseburden of productionfirst blush
Refugees who went thought the group status determination are also referred to as prima facie refugees.