Athena

Pallas AthenaPallasPallas AtheneAthena PoliasAtheneAthena NikeAthinaAthena CyparissiaAthena ItoniaAthena Nikephoros
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.wikipedia
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Epithet

bynameepithetsepitheton
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
It can also be a descriptive title: for example, Pallas Athena, Alfred the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent or Władysław I the Elbow-high.

Ancient Greek religion

Greek PolytheismGreek religionGreek
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Most ancient Greeks recognized the twelve major Olympian gods and goddesses—Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus—although philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism used language that seems to assume a single transcendent deity.

Parthenon

Temple of AthenaThe Parthenon5th-century BC Athenian temple
The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments.
The Parthenon (, Parthenónas) is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.

Minerva

MinerveMenervaRoman goddess
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena, though the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks did.

Athena Promachos

Athene PromachospromachosStatue of Athena Promachos
She was also a warrior goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos.
The Athena Promachos (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος "Athena who fights in the front line") was a colossal bronze statue of Athena sculpted by Pheidias, which stood between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.
In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena (Attic Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnâ, Ionic Ἀθήνη, Athḗnē, and Doric Ἀθάνα, Athā́nā) or Athena took her name from the city.

Zeus

JupiterCronidesZeus Chrysaoreus
In Greek mythology, Athena was believed to have been born from the head of her father Zeus.
These resulted in many divine and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses.

Gorgoneion

GorgoneiagorgonGorgon’s head
Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion.
In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective pendant, and often are depicted wearing it.

Athena Parthenos

Statue of Athena ParthenosAthena statuechryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos
She was known as Athena Parthenos ("Athena the Virgin"), but, in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius, an important Athenian founding hero. In her aspect as a warrior maiden, Athena was known as Parthenos (Παρθένος "virgin"), because, like her fellow goddesses Artemis and Hestia, she was believed to remain perpetually a virgin.
Athena Parthenos (literally, "Athena the Virgin") is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens.

Arachne

Arachne myth
In the later writings of the Roman poet Ovid, Athena was said to have competed against the mortal Arachne in a weaving competition, afterwards transforming Arachne into the first spider; Ovid also describes how she transformed Medusa into a Gorgon after witnessing her being raped by Poseidon in her temple.
In Greek mythology (and later Roman mythology), Arachne (from "spider", cognate with Latin araneus) was a talented mortal weaver who challenged Athena, goddess of wisdom and crafts, to a weaving contest; this hubris resulted in her being transformed into a spider.

Erichthonius of Athens

ErichthoniusErichthoniosErichthonius,
She was known as Athena Parthenos ("Athena the Virgin"), but, in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius, an important Athenian founding hero.
According to some myths, he was autochthonous (born of the soil, or Earth) and raised by the goddess Athena.

Aphrodite

CyprisVenusAphrodite Urania
Along with Aphrodite and Hera, Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War.
Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad.

Iliad

The IliadIlliadIlias
She plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus.
The plan backfires, and only the intervention of Odysseus, inspired by Athena, stops a rout.

Acropolis of Athens

AcropolisAthenian Acropolisthe Acropolis
The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments.
A temple to Athena Polias, the tutelary deity of the city, was erected between 570–550 BC.

Poseidon

NeptuneAegaeusNeptune Equester
In the founding myth of Athens, Athena bested Poseidon in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the first olive tree.
Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.

Heracles

HeraklesHerculesAlcides
Athena was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor; she was believed to have also aided the heroes Perseus, Heracles, Bellerophon, and Jason.
Fear of Hera's revenge led Alcmene to expose the infant Heracles, but he was taken up and brought to Hera by his half-sister Athena, who played an important role as protectress of heroes.

Palladium (classical antiquity)

PalladiumPalladionTrojan Palladium
A Mycenean fresco depicts two women extending their hands towards a central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield; this may depict the warrior-goddess with her palladion, or her palladion in an aniconic representation.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas.

Judgement of Paris

Judgment of ParisThe Judgement of Pariswhose feud
Along with Aphrodite and Hera, Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War.
Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

Odysseus

UlyssesUlisseKing of Ithaca
She plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus.
He draws the wrestling match, and with the help of the goddess Athena, he wins the race.

Greek mythology

GreekGreek mythmythological
In Greek mythology, Athena was believed to have been born from the head of her father Zeus.
She was already pregnant with Athena, however, and she burst forth from his head—fully-grown and dressed for war.

Ares

god of the same namegod of warMars
Athena represented the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust, and slaughter—"the raw force of war".
In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.

Artemis

CynthiaArtemis TauropolosArtemis Leucophryene
In her aspect as a warrior maiden, Athena was known as Parthenos (Παρθένος "virgin"), because, like her fellow goddesses Artemis and Hestia, she was believed to remain perpetually a virgin.
Much like Athena and Hestia, Artemis preferred to remain a maiden and is sworn never to marry.

Erechtheion

ErechtheumErechtheisErechteum
During this period, the priestesses of Athena, or plyntrídes, performed a cleansing ritual within the Erechtheion, a sanctuary devoted to Athena and Poseidon.
The Erechtheion or Erechtheum is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.

Chalceia

Ergastinai
Athena was worshipped at festivals such as Chalceia as Athena Ergane, the patroness of various crafts, especially weaving.
The Chalkeia festival (also spelled Chalceia), the festival of Bronze-workers, was a religious festival devoted to the goddess Athena.

Interpretatio graeca

interpretatio romanaidentified withidentified
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.