Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaquescoronary atherosclerosisarteriosclerotichardening of the arteriesarterial sclerosisatherogenicatherosclerotic diseasecoronary sclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.wikipedia
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Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build up of plaque in the arteries of the heart.

Atheroma

atherosclerotic plaqueplaqueatheromatous plaque
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atheroma is the pathological basis for the disease entity atherosclerosis, a subtype of arteriosclerosis.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.
The TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification is based on clinical symptoms as well as results of further investigations; on this basis, a stroke is classified as being due to (1) thrombosis or embolism due to atherosclerosis of a large artery, (2) an embolism originating in the heart, (3) complete blockage of a small blood vessel, (4) other determined cause, (5) undetermined cause (two possible causes, no cause identified, or incomplete investigation).

Peripheral artery disease

peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral arterial diseasearterial insufficiency
When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.
The most common underlying mechanism of peripheral artery disease is atherosclerosis, especially in individuals over 40 years old.

Arteriosclerosis

cerebral arteriosclerosishardening of the arteriesarteriosclerotic
The following terms are similar, yet distinct, in both spelling and meaning, and can be easily confused: arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and atherosclerosis.
This process gradually restricts the blood flow to one's organs and tissues and can lead to severe health risks brought on by atherosclerosis, which is a specific form of arteriosclerosis caused by the buildup of fatty plaques, cholesterol, and some other substances in and on the artery walls.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
A number of procedures may also be carried out such as percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or carotid endarterectomy.
The obstruction being bypassed is typically due to arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, or both.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour of onset of the symptom).
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomiesendarterectomy, carotidsurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
A number of procedures may also be carried out such as percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or carotid endarterectomy.
Atherosclerosis causes plaque to form within the carotid artery walls, usually at the fork where the common carotid artery divides into the internal and external carotid artery.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
Marked narrowing in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for bringing oxygenated blood to the heart, can produce symptoms such as the chest pain of angina and shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness or light-headedness, breathlessness or palpitations.
Stricture as a term is usually used when narrowing is caused by contraction of smooth muscle (e.g. achalasia, prinzmetal angina); stenosis is usually used when narrowing is caused by lesion that reduces the space of lumen (e.g. atherosclerosis).

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour of onset of the symptom).
Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis.

Fatty streak

fatty streaksa thin layer of white-yellowish streaks
Typically, atherosclerosis begins in childhood, as a thin layer of white-yellowish streaks with the inner layers of the artery walls (an accumulation of white blood cells, mostly monocytes/macrophages) and progresses from there.
A fatty streak is the first grossly visible (visible to the naked eye) lesion in the development of atherosclerosis.

Low-density lipoprotein

LDLlow density lipoproteinLDL cholesterol
Atherosclerosis is associated with inflammatory processes in the endothelial cells of the vessel wall associated with retained low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles.
LDL delivers fat molecules to the cells and can drive the progression of atherosclerosis if they become oxidized within the walls of arteries.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
Abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias—the heart beating either too slowly or too quickly—are another consequence of ischemia.
This most frequently results from atherosclerosis, which is the long-term accumulation of cholesterol-rich plaques in the coronary arteries.

Arteriolosclerosis

Arterial hyalinehyaline arteriolosclerosisHyaline type
The following terms are similar, yet distinct, in both spelling and meaning, and can be easily confused: arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is a hardening of an artery specifically due to an atheromatous plaque. The term atherogenic is used for substances or processes that cause atherosclerosis.

Vulnerable plaque

plaque ruptureplaque rupturesobviously symptomatic
Even most plaque ruptures do not produce symptoms until enough narrowing or closure of an artery, due to clots, occurs.
Researchers have found that accumulation of white blood cells, especially macrophages, termed inflammation, in the walls of the arteries leads to the development of "soft" or vulnerable plaque, which when released aggressively promotes blood clotting.

Blood

human bloodhematologicalblood-forming
Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
Atherosclerosis reduces the flow of blood through arteries, because atheroma lines arteries and narrows them. Atheroma tends to increase with age, and its progression can be compounded by many causes including smoking, high blood pressure, excess circulating lipids (hyperlipidemia), and diabetes mellitus.

Cardiac stress test

stress testexercise stress testcardiac stress tests
Diagnosis is based upon a physical exam, electrocardiogram, and exercise stress test, among others.
The value of stress tests has always been recognized as limited in assessing heart disease such as atherosclerosis, a condition which mainly produces wall thickening and enlargement of the arteries.

Periodontal disease

periodontitisgum diseaseperiodontal diseases
Periodontal disease
It is associated with an increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and hypertension.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Over time, factors such as elevated arterial blood sugar (particularly as seen in diabetes mellitus), lipoprotein, cholesterol, high blood pressure, stress and smoking, are all implicated in damaging both the endothelium and walls of the arteries, resulting in atherosclerosis.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
The ensuing inflammation leads to formation of atheromatous plaques in the arterial tunica intima, a region of the vessel wall located between the endothelium and the tunica media.
In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer (e.g., gallbladder carcinoma).

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Risk factors include abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.

Statin

statinsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor
Treatment of established disease may include medications to lower cholesterol such as statins, blood pressure medication, or medications that decrease clotting, such as aspirin.
As noted above, statins exhibit action beyond lipid-lowering activity in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

Foam cell

foam cellsfoamy macrophages
The monocytes differentiate into macrophages, which proliferate locally, ingest oxidized LDL, slowly turning into large "foam cells" – so-called because of their changed appearance resulting from the numerous internal cytoplasmic vesicles and resulting high lipid content.
Foam cells are the fat-laden M2 macrophages that serve as the hallmark of early stage atherosclerotic lesion formation.

Air pollution

air qualityemissionsair
Air pollution
Associations are believed to be causal and effects may be mediated by vasoconstriction, low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis Other mechanisms such as autonomic nervous system imbalance have also been suggested.

High-density lipoprotein

HDLHDL cholesterolhigh density lipoprotein
The process is worsened if there is insufficient high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the lipoprotein particle that removes cholesterol from tissues and carries it back to the liver.
Increasing concentrations of HDL particles are strongly associated with decreasing accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries.