Atmosphere of Venus

atmosphereVenusian atmosphereVenusinduced magnetosphereatmosphere on Venusatmosphericatmospheric features of Venuscarbon dioxide atmosphereclouds of Venuson Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.wikipedia
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Observations and explorations of Venus

Exploration of VenusVenusexploration
Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization.
Spacecraft have performed various flybys, orbits, and landings on Venus, including balloon probes that floated in the atmosphere of Venus.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
A runaway greenhouse effect may have been caused by the evaporation of the surface water and subsequent rise of the levels of other greenhouse gases.
The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases.

Mikhail Lomonosov

LomonosovMikhail Vasilyevich LomonosovMikhail V. Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov was the first person to hypothesize the existence of an atmosphere on Venus based on his observation of the transit of Venus of 1761 in a small observatory near his house in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.
Venus's small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide. Analysis of data from the Venera, Pioneer, and Magellan missions has found the chemicals hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) together in the upper atmosphere, as well as carbonyl sulfide (OCS).
On other planets, it can be found in various concentrations, the most significant being the atmosphere of Venus, where it is the third-most significant atmospheric gas at 150 ppm.

Venus Express

Venus Express spacecraftVenus Express'' (VEX)
According to measurements by the Magellan and Venus Express probes, the altitude from 52.5 to 54 km has a temperature between 293 K (20 °C) and 310 K (37 °C), and the altitude at 49.5 km above the surface is where the pressure becomes the same as Earth at sea level.
Equipped with seven scientific instruments, the main objective of the mission was the long term observation of the Venusian atmosphere.

Sunlight

sunshinesolar radiationnatural light
The thermosphere is also characterized by strong circulation, but very different in its nature - the gases heated and partially ionized by sunlight in the sunlit hemisphere migrate to the dark hemisphere where they recombine and downwell.
For example, Venus's thick atmosphere reflects more than 60% of the solar light it receives.

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning
There is carbon monoxide, water vapour and atomic oxygen as well.
In the atmosphere of Venus carbon monoxide occurs as a result of the photodissociation of carbon dioxide by electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths shorter than 169 nm.

Colonization of Venus

Venuscolonizationcloud tops of Venus
Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization.
At least as early as 1971 Soviet scientists have suggested that rather than attempting to colonize Venus' hostile surface, humans might attempt to colonize the Venerian atmosphere.

Retrograde and prograde motion

retrogradeprograderetrograde orbit
The thick troposphere also makes the difference in temperature between the day and night side small, even though the slow retrograde rotation of the planet causes a single solar day to last 116.5 Earth days.
Venus is close enough to the Sun to experience significant gravitational tidal dissipation, and also has a thick enough atmosphere to create thermally driven atmospheric tides that create a retrograde torque.

Ionosphere

ionosphericD layerionospheric physics
Its ionosphere separates the atmosphere from outer space and the solar wind.
Planets known to have ionospheres include Venus,

Magellan (spacecraft)

MagellanMagellan probeMagellan'' spacecraft
According to measurements by the Magellan and Venus Express probes, the altitude from 52.5 to 54 km has a temperature between 293 K (20 °C) and 310 K (37 °C), and the altitude at 49.5 km above the surface is where the pressure becomes the same as Earth at sea level.
Thick and opaque, the atmosphere of Venus required a method beyond optical survey, to map the surface of the planet.

Pioneer Venus project

Pioneer VenusPioneer Venus OrbiterPioneer mission to Venus
The first vortex on Venus was discovered at the north pole by the Pioneer Venus mission in 1978.
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter entered orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978, and performed observations to characterize the atmosphere and surface of Venus.

Venera

Venera programVenera programmeThe Soviet space probe
The Soviet Venera 9 and 10 orbiters obtained ambiguous optical and electromagnetic evidence of lightning.
Ten probes successfully landed on the surface of the planet, including the two Vega program and Venera-Halley probes, while thirteen probes successfully entered the Venusian atmosphere.

Runaway greenhouse effect

Hothouse Earthrunaway greenhouserunaway global warming
A runaway greenhouse effect may have been caused by the evaporation of the surface water and subsequent rise of the levels of other greenhouse gases.

Akatsuki (spacecraft)

AkatsukiPLANET-CAkatsuki (PLANET-C)
Images from the Akatsuki orbiter revealed something similar to jet stream winds in the low and middle cloud region, which extends from 45 to 60 kilometers in altitude. The JAXA probe Akatsuki (Venus Climate Orbiter), launched in May 2010, is studying the planet for a period of two years, including the structure and activity of the atmosphere, but it failed to enter Venus orbit in December 2010.
Akatsuki, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.

Magnetosphere

magnetotailmagnetosphericEarth's magnetosphere
Lighter gases, including water vapour, are continuously blown away by the solar wind through the induced magnetotail.
Venus has an induced magnetic field, which means that because Venus appears to have no internal dynamo effect, the only magnetic field present is that formed by the solar wind's wrapping around the physical obstacle of Venus (see also Venus' induced magnetosphere).

JAXA

Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyJapanese Space AgencyJapanese Aerospace Exploration Agency
The JAXA probe Akatsuki (Venus Climate Orbiter), launched in May 2010, is studying the planet for a period of two years, including the structure and activity of the atmosphere, but it failed to enter Venus orbit in December 2010.
One of Akatsuki's main goal is to uncover the mechanism behind Venus atmosphere's super-rotation, a phenomenon in which the cloud top winds in the troposphere circulates around the planet faster than the speed that Venus itself rotates.

Transit of Venus

transits of VenusVenusVenus transit
The last solar transit of Venus occurred in 2012.
The existence of an atmosphere on Venus was concluded by Mikhail Lomonosov on the basis of his observation of the transit of Venus of 1761 from the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg.

Water

Ashen light

ashen glowbright caps
Throughout the 1980s, it was thought that the cause of the night-side glow ("ashen glow") on Venus was lightning.
Venus's small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation.

Virga

all of its precipitation evaporatesevaporating before reaching the surfacefall streak
Venus's sulfuric acid rain never reaches the ground, but is evaporated by the heat before reaching the surface in a phenomenon known as virga.
Sulfuric acid rain in the atmosphere of Venus evaporates before reaching the ground due to the high heat near the surface.

Carbonyl sulfide

carbon oxysulfideCOSOCS
Analysis of data from the Venera, Pioneer, and Magellan missions has found the chemicals hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) together in the upper atmosphere, as well as carbonyl sulfide (OCS).
Carbonyl sulfide has been observed in the interstellar medium (see also List of molecules in interstellar space), in comet 67P and in the atmosphere of Venus, where, because of the difficulty of producing COS inorganically, it is considered a possible indicator of life.

VERITAS (spacecraft)

VERITASVenus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR Topography and Spectroscopy
Other proposals from the late 2010s include VERITAS, Venus Origins Explorer, VISAGE, and VICI.
The mission design also would enable the opportunity to send a nanosat probe into the atmosphere of Venus, carrying a mass spectrometer to sample the noble gases and their isotopes.

High Altitude Venus Operational Concept

High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC)HAVOC
The High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) is a NASA concept for a manned exploration of Venus.
At 55 km altitude, the atmosphere of Venus is 27 C and 0.5 bar (the equivalent pressure at an elevation of about 5,500 m on Earth).