The Large Binocular Telescope uses two curved mirrors to gather light
Diagram showing displacement of the Sun's image at sunrise and sunset
Schematic of a Keplerian refracting telescope. The arrow at (4) is a (notional) representation of the original image; the arrow at (5) is the inverted image at the focal plane; the arrow at (6) is the virtual image that forms in the viewer's visual sphere. The red rays produce the midpoint of the arrow; two other sets of rays (each black) produce its head and tail.
The atmosphere refracts the image of a waxing crescent Moon as it sets into the horizon.
Eight-inch refracting telescope at Chabot Space and Science Center
Atmospheric refraction distorting the Sun’s disk into an uneven shape as it sets in the lower horizon.
The Keck II telescope gathers light by using 36 segmented hexagonal mirrors to create a 10 m (33 ft) aperture primary mirror
Plot of refraction vs. altitude using Bennett's 1982 formula
These eyes represent a scaled figure of the human eye where 15 px = 1 mm, they have a pupil diameter of 7 mm. Figure A has an exit pupil diameter of 14 mm, which for astronomy purposes results in a 75% loss of light. Figure B has an exit pupil of 6.4 mm, which allows the full 100% of observable light to be perceived by the observer.
The animated image of the Moon's surface shows the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the view.
Two of the four Unit Telescopes that make up the ESO's VLT, on a remote mountaintop, 2600 metres above sea level in the Chilean Atacama Desert.
Comparison of nominal sizes of primary mirrors of some notable optical telescopes
Harlan J. Smith Telescope reflecting telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas

Telescope that gathers and focuses light mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct visual inspection, to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.

- Optical telescope

If observations of objects near the horizon cannot be avoided, it is possible to equip an optical telescope with control systems to compensate for the shift caused by the refraction.

- Atmospheric refraction
The Large Binocular Telescope uses two curved mirrors to gather light

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