A report on ProtonAtomAtomic nucleusElectron and Hydrogen

The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
Atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy vol. 1 (1808)
A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue). In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus that occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon can be said to occupy a range of locations.
Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.
The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Ernest Rutherford at the first Solvay Conference, 1911
The Geiger–Marsden experiment:
Left: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom with negligible deflection.
Right: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected by the concentrated positive charge of the nucleus.
A figurative depiction of the helium-4 atom with the electron cloud in shades of gray. In the nucleus, the two protons and two neutrons are depicted in red and blue. This depiction shows the particles as separate, whereas in an actual helium atom, the protons are superimposed in space and most likely found at the very center of the nucleus, and the same is true of the two neutrons. Thus, all four particles are most likely found in exactly the same space, at the central point. Classical images of separate particles fail to model known charge distributions in very small nuclei. A more accurate image is that the spatial distribution of nucleons in a helium nucleus is much closer to the helium electron cloud shown here, although on a far smaller scale, than to the fanciful nucleus image. Both the helium atom and its nucleus are spherically symmetric.
A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Proton detected in an isopropanol cloud chamber
The Bohr model of the atom, with an electron making instantaneous "quantum leaps" from one orbit to another with gain or loss of energy. This model of electrons in orbits is obsolete.
J. J. Thomson
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron (it has no neutrons). The term "hydrogen ion" implies that that H-atom has lost its one electron, causing only a proton to remain. Thus, in chemistry, the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" (for the protium isotope) are used synonymously
The binding energy needed for a nucleon to escape the nucleus, for various isotopes
Robert Millikan
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A potential well, showing, according to classical mechanics, the minimum energy V(x) needed to reach each position x. Classically, a particle with energy E is constrained to a range of positions between x1 and x2.
The Bohr model of the atom, showing states of an electron with energy quantized by the number n. An electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits.
A sample of sodium hydride
3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
In quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in an atom is described by an orbital, which is a probability distribution rather than an orbit. In the figure, the shading indicates the relative probability to "find" the electron, having the energy corresponding to the given quantum numbers, at that point.
This diagram shows the half-life (T½) of various isotopes with Z protons and N neutrons.
Standard Model of elementary particles. The electron (symbol e) is on the left.
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
These electron's energy levels (not to scale) are sufficient for ground states of atoms up to cadmium (5s2 4d10) inclusively. Do not forget that even the top of the diagram is lower than an unbound electron state.
Example of an antisymmetric wave function for a quantum state of two identical fermions in a 1-dimensional box. If the particles swap position, the wave function inverts its sign.
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
An example of absorption lines in a spectrum
A schematic depiction of virtual electron–positron pairs appearing at random near an electron (at lower left)
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Graphic illustrating the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate
A particle with charge q (at left) is moving with velocity v through a magnetic field B that is oriented toward the viewer. For an electron, q is negative so it follows a curved trajectory toward the top.
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
Scanning tunneling microscope image showing the individual atoms making up this gold (100) surface. The surface atoms deviate from the bulk crystal structure and arrange in columns several atoms wide with pits between them (See surface reconstruction).
Here, Bremsstrahlung is produced by an electron e deflected by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. The energy change E2 − E1 determines the frequency f of the emitted photon.
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
Periodic table showing the origin of each element. Elements from carbon up to sulfur may be made in small stars by the alpha process. Elements beyond iron are made in large stars with slow neutron capture (s-process). Elements heavier than iron may be made in neutron star mergers or supernovae after the r-process.
Probability densities for the first few hydrogen atom orbitals, seen in cross-section. The energy level of a bound electron determines the orbital it occupies, and the color reflects the probability of finding the electron at a given position.
A lightning discharge consists primarily of a flow of electrons. The electric potential needed for lightning can be generated by a triboelectric effect.
Lorentz factor as a function of velocity. It starts at value 1 and goes to infinity as v approaches c.
Pair production of an electron and positron, caused by the close approach of a photon with an atomic nucleus. The lightning symbol represents an exchange of a virtual photon, thus an electric force acts. The angle between the particles is very small.
An extended air shower generated by an energetic cosmic ray striking the Earth's atmosphere
Aurorae are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.
During a NASA wind tunnel test, a model of the Space Shuttle is targeted by a beam of electrons, simulating the effect of ionizing gases during re-entry.

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

- Atomic nucleus

An atom is composed of a positively charged nucleus, with a cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding it, bound together by electrostatic force.

- Atomic nucleus

One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom.

- Proton

The electron's mass is approximately 1836 times smaller than that of the proton.

- Electron

Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus.

- Atom

The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons.

- Atom

The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.7 fm (1.7 m ) for hydrogen (the diameter of a single proton) to about 11.7 fm for uranium.

- Atomic nucleus

Only the most common variety of hydrogen has no neutrons.

- Atom

For the most common isotope of hydrogen (symbol 1H) each atom has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons.

- Hydrogen

In previous years, Rutherford had discovered that the hydrogen nucleus (known to be the lightest nucleus) could be extracted from the nuclei of nitrogen by atomic collisions.

- Proton

The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.

- Electron

At sufficiently low temperatures and kinetic energies, free protons will bind to electrons.

- Proton

This is because it was assumed that the charge carriers were much heavier hydrogen or nitrogen atoms.

- Electron

Oxidation of hydrogen removes its electron and gives H+, which contains no electrons and a nucleus which is usually composed of one proton.

- Hydrogen
The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

1 related topic with Alpha


The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.


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The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
Nuclear fission caused by absorption of a neutron by uranium-235. The heavy nuclide fragments into lighter components and additional neutrons.
Models depicting the nucleus and electron energy levels in hydrogen, helium, lithium, and neon atoms. In reality, the diameter of the nucleus is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of the atom.
A schematic of the nucleus of an atom indicating radiation, the emission of a fast electron from the nucleus (the accompanying antineutrino is omitted). In the Rutherford model for the nucleus, red spheres were protons with positive charge and blue spheres were protons tightly bound to an electron with no net charge. 
The inset shows beta decay of a free neutron as it is understood today; an electron and antineutrino are created in this process.
The Feynman diagram for beta decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino via an intermediate heavy W boson
The leading-order Feynman diagram for decay of a proton into a neutron, positron, and electron neutrino via an intermediate boson.
Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France – a major neutron research facility.
Cold neutron source providing neutrons at about the temperature of liquid hydrogen
The fusion reaction rate increases rapidly with temperature until it maximizes and then gradually drops off. The D–T rate peaks at a lower temperature (about 70 keV, or 800 million kelvins) and at a higher value than other reactions commonly considered for fusion energy.
Transmutation flow in light water reactor, which is a thermal-spectrum reactor

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton.

Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms.

The chemical properties of an atom are mostly determined by the configuration of electrons that orbit the atom's heavy nucleus.

Neutrons are required for the stability of nuclei, with the exception of the single-proton hydrogen nucleus.