A report on ProtonElectric charge and Atom

The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
Electric field of a positive and a negative point charge
Atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy vol. 1 (1808)
Ernest Rutherford at the first Solvay Conference, 1911
Diagram showing field lines and equipotentials around an electron, a negatively charged particle. In an electrically neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons (which are positively charged), resulting in a net zero overall charge
The Geiger–Marsden experiment:
Left: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom with negligible deflection.
Right: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected by the concentrated positive charge of the nucleus.
Proton detected in an isopropanol cloud chamber
Coulomb's torsion balance
The Bohr model of the atom, with an electron making instantaneous "quantum leaps" from one orbit to another with gain or loss of energy. This model of electrons in orbits is obsolete.
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron (it has no neutrons). The term "hydrogen ion" implies that that H-atom has lost its one electron, causing only a proton to remain. Thus, in chemistry, the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" (for the protium isotope) are used synonymously
The binding energy needed for a nucleon to escape the nucleus, for various isotopes
A potential well, showing, according to classical mechanics, the minimum energy V(x) needed to reach each position x. Classically, a particle with energy E is constrained to a range of positions between x1 and x2.
3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
This diagram shows the half-life (T½) of various isotopes with Z protons and N neutrons.
These electron's energy levels (not to scale) are sufficient for ground states of atoms up to cadmium (5s2 4d10) inclusively. Do not forget that even the top of the diagram is lower than an unbound electron state.
An example of absorption lines in a spectrum
Graphic illustrating the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate
Scanning tunneling microscope image showing the individual atoms making up this gold (100) surface. The surface atoms deviate from the bulk crystal structure and arrange in columns several atoms wide with pits between them (See surface reconstruction).
Periodic table showing the origin of each element. Elements from carbon up to sulfur may be made in small stars by the alpha process. Elements beyond iron are made in large stars with slow neutron capture (s-process). Elements heavier than iron may be made in neutron star mergers or supernovae after the r-process.

A proton is a stable subatomic particle, symbol, H+, or 1H+ with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge.

- Proton

Electric charge can be positive or negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively).

- Electric charge

One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom.

- Proton

The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons.

- Atom

In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

- Electric charge

The protons have a positive electric charge, the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge.

- Atom
The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.

Electron

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Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.
A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field
J. J. Thomson
Robert Millikan
The Bohr model of the atom, showing states of an electron with energy quantized by the number n. An electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits.
In quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in an atom is described by an orbital, which is a probability distribution rather than an orbit. In the figure, the shading indicates the relative probability to "find" the electron, having the energy corresponding to the given quantum numbers, at that point.
Standard Model of elementary particles. The electron (symbol e) is on the left.
Example of an antisymmetric wave function for a quantum state of two identical fermions in a 1-dimensional box. If the particles swap position, the wave function inverts its sign.
A schematic depiction of virtual electron–positron pairs appearing at random near an electron (at lower left)
A particle with charge q (at left) is moving with velocity v through a magnetic field B that is oriented toward the viewer. For an electron, q is negative so it follows a curved trajectory toward the top.
Here, Bremsstrahlung is produced by an electron e deflected by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. The energy change E2 − E1 determines the frequency f of the emitted photon.
Probability densities for the first few hydrogen atom orbitals, seen in cross-section. The energy level of a bound electron determines the orbital it occupies, and the color reflects the probability of finding the electron at a given position.
A lightning discharge consists primarily of a flow of electrons. The electric potential needed for lightning can be generated by a triboelectric effect.
Lorentz factor as a function of velocity. It starts at value 1 and goes to infinity as v approaches c.
Pair production of an electron and positron, caused by the close approach of a photon with an atomic nucleus. The lightning symbol represents an exchange of a virtual photon, thus an electric force acts. The angle between the particles is very small.
An extended air shower generated by an energetic cosmic ray striking the Earth's atmosphere
Aurorae are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.
During a NASA wind tunnel test, a model of the Space Shuttle is targeted by a beam of electrons, simulating the effect of ionizing gases during re-entry.

The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

The electron's mass is approximately 1836 times smaller than that of the proton.

The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.

The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

Neutron

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The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
Nuclear fission caused by absorption of a neutron by uranium-235. The heavy nuclide fragments into lighter components and additional neutrons.
Models depicting the nucleus and electron energy levels in hydrogen, helium, lithium, and neon atoms. In reality, the diameter of the nucleus is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of the atom.
A schematic of the nucleus of an atom indicating radiation, the emission of a fast electron from the nucleus (the accompanying antineutrino is omitted). In the Rutherford model for the nucleus, red spheres were protons with positive charge and blue spheres were protons tightly bound to an electron with no net charge. 
The inset shows beta decay of a free neutron as it is understood today; an electron and antineutrino are created in this process.
The Feynman diagram for beta decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino via an intermediate heavy W boson
The leading-order Feynman diagram for decay of a proton into a neutron, positron, and electron neutrino via an intermediate boson.
Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France – a major neutron research facility.
Cold neutron source providing neutrons at about the temperature of liquid hydrogen
The fusion reaction rate increases rapidly with temperature until it maximizes and then gradually drops off. The D–T rate peaks at a lower temperature (about 70 keV, or 800 million kelvins) and at a higher value than other reactions commonly considered for fusion energy.
Transmutation flow in light water reactor, which is a thermal-spectrum reactor

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton.

Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms.

The common means of detecting a charged particle by looking for a track of ionization (such as in a cloud chamber) does not work for neutrons directly.

A composite particle proton is made of two up quark and one down quark, which are elementary particles

Subatomic particle

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A composite particle proton is made of two up quark and one down quark, which are elementary particles
The Standard Model classification of particles

In physical sciences, a subatomic particle is a particle that composes an atom.

According to the Standard Model of particle physics, a subatomic particle can be either a composite particle, which is composed of other particles (for example, a proton, neutron, or meson), or an elementary particle, which is not composed of other particles (for example, an electron, photon, or muon).

It is also certain that any particle with an electric charge is massive.

Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron. Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas the addition of an electron gives an anion (right). The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. Hydrogen forms the only charge-+1 cation that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) retain one or more electrons are still smaller than the neutral atoms or molecules from which they are derived.

Ion

1 links

Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron. Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas the addition of an electron gives an anion (right). The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. Hydrogen forms the only charge-+1 cation that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) retain one or more electrons are still smaller than the neutral atoms or molecules from which they are derived.
Schematic of an ion chamber, showing drift of ions. Electrons drift faster than positive ions due to their much smaller mass.
Avalanche effect between two electrodes. The original ionization event liberates one electron, and each subsequent collision liberates a further electron, so two electrons emerge from each collision: the ionizing electron and the liberated electron.
Equivalent notations for an iron atom (Fe) that lost two electrons, referred to as ferrous.
Mixed Roman numerals and charge notations for the uranyl ion. The oxidation state of the metal is shown as superscripted Roman numerals, whereas the charge of the entire complex is shown by the angle symbol together with the magnitude and sign of the net charge.
An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion . The 3-dimensional shell represents a single arbitrary isopotential.

An ion is an atom or molecule with a net electrical charge.

The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of a proton, which is considered to be positive by convention.

Deuterium

1 links

One of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

One of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

Deuterium discharge tube
Ionized deuterium in a fusor reactor giving off its characteristic pinkish-red glow
Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp
Harold Urey, deuterium's discoverer
The "Sausage" device casing of the Ivy Mike H bomb, attached to instrumentation and cryogenic equipment. The 20-ft-tall bomb held a cryogenic Dewar flask with room for 160 kg of liquid deuterium.

The nucleus of a deuterium atom, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutrons in the nucleus.

While the order of magnitude is reasonable, since the deuterium radius is of order of 1 femtometer (see below) and its electric charge is e, the above model does not suffice for its computation.