A report on ProtonSubatomic particle and Atom

The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
A composite particle proton is made of two up quark and one down quark, which are elementary particles
Atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy vol. 1 (1808)
Ernest Rutherford at the first Solvay Conference, 1911
The Standard Model classification of particles
The Geiger–Marsden experiment:
Left: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom with negligible deflection.
Right: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected by the concentrated positive charge of the nucleus.
Proton detected in an isopropanol cloud chamber
The Bohr model of the atom, with an electron making instantaneous "quantum leaps" from one orbit to another with gain or loss of energy. This model of electrons in orbits is obsolete.
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron (it has no neutrons). The term "hydrogen ion" implies that that H-atom has lost its one electron, causing only a proton to remain. Thus, in chemistry, the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" (for the protium isotope) are used synonymously
The binding energy needed for a nucleon to escape the nucleus, for various isotopes
A potential well, showing, according to classical mechanics, the minimum energy V(x) needed to reach each position x. Classically, a particle with energy E is constrained to a range of positions between x1 and x2.
3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
This diagram shows the half-life (T½) of various isotopes with Z protons and N neutrons.
These electron's energy levels (not to scale) are sufficient for ground states of atoms up to cadmium (5s2 4d10) inclusively. Do not forget that even the top of the diagram is lower than an unbound electron state.
An example of absorption lines in a spectrum
Graphic illustrating the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate
Scanning tunneling microscope image showing the individual atoms making up this gold (100) surface. The surface atoms deviate from the bulk crystal structure and arrange in columns several atoms wide with pits between them (See surface reconstruction).
Periodic table showing the origin of each element. Elements from carbon up to sulfur may be made in small stars by the alpha process. Elements beyond iron are made in large stars with slow neutron capture (s-process). Elements heavier than iron may be made in neutron star mergers or supernovae after the r-process.

A proton is a stable subatomic particle, symbol, H+, or 1H+ with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge.

- Proton

In physical sciences, a subatomic particle is a particle that composes an atom.

- Subatomic particle

According to the Standard Model of particle physics, a subatomic particle can be either a composite particle, which is composed of other particles (for example, a proton, neutron, or meson), or an elementary particle, which is not composed of other particles (for example, an electron, photon, or muon).

- Subatomic particle

One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom.

- Proton

The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons.

- Atom

Though the word atom originally denoted a particle that cannot be cut into smaller particles, in modern scientific usage the atom is composed of various subatomic particles.

- Atom
The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.

Neutron

6 links

The quark content of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
Nuclear fission caused by absorption of a neutron by uranium-235. The heavy nuclide fragments into lighter components and additional neutrons.
Models depicting the nucleus and electron energy levels in hydrogen, helium, lithium, and neon atoms. In reality, the diameter of the nucleus is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of the atom.
A schematic of the nucleus of an atom indicating radiation, the emission of a fast electron from the nucleus (the accompanying antineutrino is omitted). In the Rutherford model for the nucleus, red spheres were protons with positive charge and blue spheres were protons tightly bound to an electron with no net charge. 
The inset shows beta decay of a free neutron as it is understood today; an electron and antineutrino are created in this process.
The Feynman diagram for beta decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and electron antineutrino via an intermediate heavy W boson
The leading-order Feynman diagram for decay of a proton into a neutron, positron, and electron neutrino via an intermediate boson.
Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France – a major neutron research facility.
Cold neutron source providing neutrons at about the temperature of liquid hydrogen
The fusion reaction rate increases rapidly with temperature until it maximizes and then gradually drops off. The D–T rate peaks at a lower temperature (about 70 keV, or 800 million kelvins) and at a higher value than other reactions commonly considered for fusion energy.
Transmutation flow in light water reactor, which is a thermal-spectrum reactor

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton.

Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms.

Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.

Electron

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Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.
A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field
J. J. Thomson
Robert Millikan
The Bohr model of the atom, showing states of an electron with energy quantized by the number n. An electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits.
In quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in an atom is described by an orbital, which is a probability distribution rather than an orbit. In the figure, the shading indicates the relative probability to "find" the electron, having the energy corresponding to the given quantum numbers, at that point.
Standard Model of elementary particles. The electron (symbol e) is on the left.
Example of an antisymmetric wave function for a quantum state of two identical fermions in a 1-dimensional box. If the particles swap position, the wave function inverts its sign.
A schematic depiction of virtual electron–positron pairs appearing at random near an electron (at lower left)
A particle with charge q (at left) is moving with velocity v through a magnetic field B that is oriented toward the viewer. For an electron, q is negative so it follows a curved trajectory toward the top.
Here, Bremsstrahlung is produced by an electron e deflected by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. The energy change E2 − E1 determines the frequency f of the emitted photon.
Probability densities for the first few hydrogen atom orbitals, seen in cross-section. The energy level of a bound electron determines the orbital it occupies, and the color reflects the probability of finding the electron at a given position.
A lightning discharge consists primarily of a flow of electrons. The electric potential needed for lightning can be generated by a triboelectric effect.
Lorentz factor as a function of velocity. It starts at value 1 and goes to infinity as v approaches c.
Pair production of an electron and positron, caused by the close approach of a photon with an atomic nucleus. The lightning symbol represents an exchange of a virtual photon, thus an electric force acts. The angle between the particles is very small.
An extended air shower generated by an energetic cosmic ray striking the Earth's atmosphere
Aurorae are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.
During a NASA wind tunnel test, a model of the Space Shuttle is targeted by a beam of electrons, simulating the effect of ionizing gases during re-entry.

The electron is a subatomic particle (denoted by the symbol or or ) whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

The electron's mass is approximately 1836 times smaller than that of the proton.

The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.

Elementary particle

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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles.

Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles – atomos meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek – although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.

Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan 2 detector

Muon

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Elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1⁄2, but with a much greater mass.

Elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1⁄2, but with a much greater mass.

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan 2 detector
The most common decay of the muon
Cosmic ray muon passing through lead in cloud chamber

The muon is an unstable subatomic particle with a mean lifetime of 2.2 µs, much longer than many other subatomic particles.

They were negatively charged but curved less sharply than electrons, but more sharply than protons, for particles of the same velocity.

The muon was the first elementary particle discovered that does not appear in ordinary atoms.

A hadron is a composite subatomic particle. Every hadron must fall into one of the two fundamental classes of particle, bosons and fermions

Hadron

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Composite subatomic particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong interaction.

Composite subatomic particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong interaction.

A hadron is a composite subatomic particle. Every hadron must fall into one of the two fundamental classes of particle, bosons and fermions
All types of hadrons have zero total color charge (three examples shown)

Most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from two hadrons: the proton and the neutron, while most of the mass of the protons and neutrons is in turn due to the binding energy of their constituent quarks, due to the strong force.

Protons and neutrons (which make the majority of the mass of an atom) are examples of baryons; pions are an example of a meson.

Like all subatomic particles, hadrons are assigned quantum numbers corresponding to the representations of the Poincaré group:

Electric field of a positive and a negative point charge

Electric charge

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Physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

Physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

Electric field of a positive and a negative point charge
Diagram showing field lines and equipotentials around an electron, a negatively charged particle. In an electrically neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons (which are positively charged), resulting in a net zero overall charge
Coulomb's torsion balance

Electric charge can be positive or negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively).

Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles.

In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

Combinations of three u, d or s quarks forming baryons with a spin-3⁄2 form the uds baryon decuplet

Baryon

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Combinations of three u, d or s quarks forming baryons with a spin-3⁄2 form the uds baryon decuplet
Combinations of three u, d or s quarks forming baryons with a spin-1⁄2 form the uds baryon octet

In particle physics, a baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks (at least 3).

For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark; and its corresponding antiparticle, the antiproton, is made of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark.

These particles make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe and compose the nucleus of every atom.