A report on Atom and Proton

Atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy vol. 1 (1808)
The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Forces between quarks are mediated by gluons.
The Geiger–Marsden experiment:
Left: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom with negligible deflection.
Right: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected by the concentrated positive charge of the nucleus.
Ernest Rutherford at the first Solvay Conference, 1911
The Bohr model of the atom, with an electron making instantaneous "quantum leaps" from one orbit to another with gain or loss of energy. This model of electrons in orbits is obsolete.
Proton detected in an isopropanol cloud chamber
The binding energy needed for a nucleon to escape the nucleus, for various isotopes
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron (it has no neutrons). The term "hydrogen ion" implies that that H-atom has lost its one electron, causing only a proton to remain. Thus, in chemistry, the terms "proton" and "hydrogen ion" (for the protium isotope) are used synonymously
A potential well, showing, according to classical mechanics, the minimum energy V(x) needed to reach each position x. Classically, a particle with energy E is constrained to a range of positions between x1 and x2.
3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
This diagram shows the half-life (T½) of various isotopes with Z protons and N neutrons.
These electron's energy levels (not to scale) are sufficient for ground states of atoms up to cadmium (5s2 4d10) inclusively. Do not forget that even the top of the diagram is lower than an unbound electron state.
An example of absorption lines in a spectrum
Graphic illustrating the formation of a Bose–Einstein condensate
Scanning tunneling microscope image showing the individual atoms making up this gold (100) surface. The surface atoms deviate from the bulk crystal structure and arrange in columns several atoms wide with pits between them (See surface reconstruction).
Periodic table showing the origin of each element. Elements from carbon up to sulfur may be made in small stars by the alpha process. Elements beyond iron are made in large stars with slow neutron capture (s-process). Elements heavier than iron may be made in neutron star mergers or supernovae after the r-process.

One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom.

- Proton

The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons.

- Atom
Atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy vol. 1 (1808)

25 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Hydrogen atom

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Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. (Image not to scale)
Probability densities through the xz-plane for the electron at different quantum numbers (ℓ, across top; n, down side; m = 0)

A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.

The electrically neutral atom contains a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron bound to the nucleus by the Coulomb force.

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan 2 detector

Muon

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Elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1⁄2, but with a much greater mass.

Elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1⁄2, but with a much greater mass.

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan 2 detector
The most common decay of the muon
Cosmic ray muon passing through lead in cloud chamber

They were negatively charged but curved less sharply than electrons, but more sharply than protons, for particles of the same velocity.

The muon was the first elementary particle discovered that does not appear in ordinary atoms.

Scheme of two types of electron capture. Top: The nucleus absorbs an electron. Lower left: An outer electron replaces the "missing" electron. An x-ray, equal in energy to the difference between the two electron shells, is emitted. Lower right: In the Auger effect, the energy absorbed when the outer electron replaces the inner electron is transferred to an outer electron. The outer electron is ejected from the atom, leaving a positive ion.

Electron capture

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Scheme of two types of electron capture. Top: The nucleus absorbs an electron. Lower left: An outer electron replaces the "missing" electron. An x-ray, equal in energy to the difference between the two electron shells, is emitted. Lower right: In the Auger effect, the energy absorbed when the outer electron replaces the inner electron is transferred to an outer electron. The outer electron is ejected from the atom, leaving a positive ion.
The leading-order Feynman diagrams for electron capture decay. An electron interacts with an up quark in the nucleus via a W boson to create a down quark and electron neutrino. Two diagrams comprise the leading (second) order, though as a virtual particle, the type (and charge) of the W-boson is indistinguishable.

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shells.

Electron capture is the primary decay mode for isotopes with a relative superabundance of protons in the nucleus, but with insufficient energy difference between the isotope and its prospective daughter (the isobar with one less positive charge) for the nuclide to decay by emitting a positron.

Hydrogen 4.1, made out of 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 1 muon and 1 electron

Exotic atom

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Hydrogen 4.1, made out of 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 1 muon and 1 electron

An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same charge.

The symbol 4.1H (Hydrogen-4.1) has been used to describe the exotic atom muonic helium (4He-μ), which is like helium-4 in having 2 protons and 2 neutrons.

Diagram of a helium atom, showing the electron probability density as shades of gray.

Atomic radius

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Diagram of a helium atom, showing the electron probability density as shades of gray.
The approximate shape of a molecule of ethanol, CH3CH2OH. Each atom is modeled by a sphere with the element's Van der Waals radius.
A graph comparing the atomic radius of elements with atomic numbers 1–100. Accuracy of ±5 pm.

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atom, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the outermost isolated electron.

The shells are generally filled in order of increasing radius, since the negatively charged electrons are attracted by the positively charged protons in the nucleus.