Atopic dermatitis

atopic eczemaatopiceczemaBesnier's prurigodermatitis, atopicBesnier’s prurigodermatitisendogenous eczemainfantile eczemairritate
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).wikipedia
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Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma.
A triad of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma is called atopy.

Dermatitis

eczemaallergic dermatitischronic eczema
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).
Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and stasis dermatitis.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
Treatment involves avoiding things that make the condition worse, daily bathing with application of a moisturising cream afterwards, applying steroid creams when flares occur, and medications to help with itchiness.

Dennie–Morgan fold

Dennie-Morgan foldDennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
AD commonly affects the eyelids where signs such as Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold, infra-auricular fissure, and periorbital pigmentation can be seen.
It can simply be an ethnic/genetic trait, but was found in one study to occur in 25% of patients with atopic dermatitis.

Allergy

allergiesallergic reactionallergic
According to the hygiene hypothesis, early childhood exposure to certain microorganisms (such as gut flora and helminth parasites) protects against allergic diseases by contributing to the development of the immune system.
These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.

Light therapy

phototherapyheliotherapylight box
Phototherapy may be useful in some people.
Phototherapy can be effective in the treatment of eczema, atopic dermatitis, polymorphous light eruption, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and lichen planus.

Atopy

atopicatopic disordersallergic diseases
Many people with AD have a family history of atopy.
A person with atopy typically presents with one or more of the following: eczema (atopic dermatitis), allergic rhinitis (hay fever), or allergic asthma.

Allergic rhinitis

hay feverhayfeverhay-fever
Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma.
Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.

Skin condition

Skin lesionskin diseasepustule
Lichenification, excoriation and erosion or crusting on the trunk may indicate secondary infection.

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureusstaph infectionStaph. aureus
Colonization of the skin by the bacterium S. aureus is extremely prevalent in those with atopic dermatitis.
S. aureus is extremely prevalent in persons with atopic dermatitis, more commonly known as eczema.

Tacrolimus

FK506Prograftacrolimus binding protein 1a
If topical corticosteroids and moisturisers fail, short-term treatment with topical calcineurin inhibitors like tacrolimus or pimecrolimus may be tried, although their use is controversial as some studies indicate that they increase the risk of developing skin cancer or lymphoma.
Tacrolimus is also used in the treatment of other T cell-mediated diseases such as eczema and psoriasis.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

seborrheic dermatitisseborrheaseborrheic
Other diseases that must be excluded before making a diagnosis include contact dermatitis, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Pimecrolimus

Elidel
If topical corticosteroids and moisturisers fail, short-term treatment with topical calcineurin inhibitors like tacrolimus or pimecrolimus may be tried, although their use is controversial as some studies indicate that they increase the risk of developing skin cancer or lymphoma.
Pimecrolimus is an immunomodulating agent of the calcineurin inhibitor class used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema).

Crisaborole

AN2728
In 2016, crisaborole was approved as a topical treatment for mild-to-moderate eczema.
Crisaborole, sold under the brand name Eucrisa, is a nonsteroidal topical medication used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (eczema) in people two years or older.

Ciclosporin

cyclosporinecyclosporincyclosporin A
Other medications used for AD include systemic immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin, methotrexate, interferon gamma-1b, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine.
In addition to these indications, ciclosporin is also used in severe atopic dermatitis, Kimura disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, chronic hives, acute systemic mastocytosis, and posterior or intermediate uveitis with noninfective cause.

Azathioprine

ImuranAzahexalAzasan
Other medications used for AD include systemic immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin, methotrexate, interferon gamma-1b, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine.
Azathioprine is used alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection following organ transplantation, and to treat an array of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, pemphigus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behçet's disease, and other forms of vasculitis, autoimmune hepatitis, atopic dermatitis, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease), restrictive lung disease, and others.

Itch

itchingpruritusitchiness
It results in itchy, red, swollen, and cracked skin.
This can be problematic with chronic itch patients, such as ones with atopic dermatitis, who may scratch affected spots until they no longer produce a pleasant or painful sensation, instead of when the itch sensation disappears.

Moisturizer

emollientemollientsmoisturizers
Treatment involves avoiding things that make the condition worse, daily bathing with application of a moisturising cream afterwards, applying steroid creams when flares occur, and medications to help with itchiness.
Emollients are used for the treatment of certain skin ailments, such as psoriasis, ichthyosis vulgaris, xerosis, and pruritus in atopic dermatitis.

Dupilumab

Dupixent
In 2017, the biologic agent dupilumab was approved to treat moderate-to-severe eczema.
Dupilumab appears to be useful for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis for which it is approved in the United States.

Abrocitinib

Medications in Phase III trials as treatments include tralokinumab and abrocitinib.
Abrocitinib (code name PF-04965842) is a Janus kinase inhibitor drug which is currently under investigation for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

Interferon gamma

IFN-γinterferon-gammaIFNγ
Other medications used for AD include systemic immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin, methotrexate, interferon gamma-1b, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine.
Although not officially approved, Interferon-γ has also been shown to be effective in treating patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

Tralokinumab

Medications in Phase III trials as treatments include tralokinumab and abrocitinib.
After 2007 it has been developed by MedImmune, a member of the AstraZeneca group, where it is currently in Ph3 testing for asthma and Ph2b testing for atopic dermatitis.

Skin infection

skinbacterial skin infectioncutaneous
Scratching worsens symptoms and affected people have an increased risk of skin infections.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
The cause is unknown but believed to involve genetics, immune system dysfunction, environmental exposures, and difficulties with the permeability of the skin.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
According to the hygiene hypothesis, early childhood exposure to certain microorganisms (such as gut flora and helminth parasites) protects against allergic diseases by contributing to the development of the immune system. The cause is unknown but believed to involve genetics, immune system dysfunction, environmental exposures, and difficulties with the permeability of the skin.