Atrazine

Altrazine
Atrazine is a herbicide of the triazine class.wikipedia
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Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Atrazine is a herbicide of the triazine class.
The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, were introduced in the 1950s; they have the current distinction of being the herbicide family of greatest concern regarding groundwater contamination.

Cyanuric chloride

cyanuric trichloride
Atrazine is prepared from cyanuric chloride, which is treated sequentially with ethylamine and isopropyl amine.
Cyanuric chloride is the main precursor to the popular but controversial herbicide atrazine.

Syngenta

Agricultural Research StationNovartisNovartis Seed Co.
It was banned in the European Union in October 2003, when the EU found groundwater levels exceeding the limits set by regulators, and Syngenta could neither show that this could be prevented nor that these levels were safe.
Atrazine is an herbicide of the triazine class.

Isopropylamine

isopropyl amine
Atrazine is prepared from cyanuric chloride, which is treated sequentially with ethylamine and isopropyl amine.
Isopropylamine is a building block for the preparation of many herbicides and pesticides including atrazine, bentazon, glyphosate, imazapyr, ametryne, desmetryn, prometryn, pramitol, dipropetryn, propazine, fenamiphos, and iprodione.

Alachlor

Lasso
Like the herbicides trifluralin and alachlor, atrazine is susceptible to rapid transformation in the presence of reduced iron-bearing soil clays, such as ferruginous smectites.
It is marketed in mixed formulations with atrazine, glyphosate, trifluralin and imazaquin.

Tyrone Hayes

A 2002 study by Tyrone Hayes, of the University of California, Berkeley, found that exposure caused male tadpoles to turn into hermaphrodites – frogs with both male and female sexual characteristics.
Tyrone B. Hayes (born July 29, 1967) is an American biologist and professor of Integrative Biology at University of California, Berkeley known for his research findings concluding that the herbicide atrazine is an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male frogs.

Endocrine disruptor

endocrine disruptionendocrine disruptorsendocrine disrupting chemicals
Studies suggest it is an endocrine disruptor, an agent that can alter the natural hormonal system.
Some other examples of putative EDCs are polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and -furans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenol derivatives and a number of pesticides (most prominent being organochlorine insecticides like endosulfan, kepone (chlordecone) and DDT and its derivatives, the herbicide atrazine, and the fungicide vinclozolin), the contraceptive 17-alpha ethinylestradiol, as well as naturally occurring phytoestrogens such as genistein and mycoestrogens such as zearalenone.

Ethylamine

ethanamineMEAmonoethylamine
Atrazine is prepared from cyanuric chloride, which is treated sequentially with ethylamine and isopropyl amine.
Ethylamine is a precursor to many herbicides including atrazine and simazine.

Glyphosate

Roundupglycosphateglyphosates
In the United States as of 2014, atrazine was the second-most widely used herbicide after glyphosate, with 76 million pounds of it applied each year.
Atrazine

Simazine

Simazine
Like atrazine, a related triazine herbicide, it acts by inhibiting photosynthesis.

Enzyme promiscuity

promiscuous actionpromiscuous activitypromiscuous
An example of this is the atrazine chlorohydrolase (atzA encoded) from Pseudomonas sp. ADP which evolved from melamine deaminase (triA encoded), which has very small promiscuous activity towards atrazine, a man-made chemical.

American Council on Science and Health

Over the years, their articles have included such topics as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), obesity, chemophobia, phthalates, DDT, fracking, e-cigarettes, GMOs, atrazine, and bisphenol A.

Bx1 benzoxazin1

bx1
First report Hamilton 1964, as a mutant sensitive to the herbicide atrazine, and lacking benzoxazinoids (less than 1% of non-mutant plants).

Autoradiograph

autoradiographyautoradiographicautoradiographs
For example, micro-autoradiography was used to examine whether atrazine was being metabolized by the hornwort plant or by epiphytic microorganisms in the biofilm layer surrounding the plant.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides (e.g. 2,4-D), triazines (e.g., atrazine), ureas (e.g., diuron), and Chloroacetanilides (e.g., alachlor).

Environmental impact of pesticides

pesticide pollutionenvironmental effects of pesticidesmore than 67 million birds are killed by pesticides each year
The herbicide atrazine can turn male frogs into hermaphrodites, decreasing their ability to reproduce.

Atrazine chlorohydrolase

Atrazine Chlorohydrolase (AtzA) is an enzyme (E.C.3.8.1.8), which catalyzes the conversion of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine.

Roundup Ready

herbicide-resistant crop plants
While the use of Roundup Ready crops has increased the usage of herbicides measured in pounds applied per acre, it has also changed the herbicide use profile away from atrazine, metribuzin, and alachlor which are more likely to be present in run off water.

Drexel, Missouri

Drexel
In June 2010, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources warned of a spike of 31.2 parts herbicide atrazine per billion in Drexel's public water supply.

Abdominal wall defect

abdominal wall defectssilos for abdominal wall defects
The EPA is aware that a common herbicide called Atrazine causes abdominal wall defects as well as other birth defects and cancer.

Restricted use pesticide

restricted pesticidesrestricted use pesticidesrestricted-use product
Atrazine is the most widely used restricted-use herbicide, however there are over 700 such "restricted use" pesticides as of 2017.