Attempto Controlled English

Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a subset of standard English with a restricted syntax and restricted semantics described by a small set of construction and interpretation rules.wikipedia
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Query language

querydatabase languagedatabase query language
ACE can serve as knowledge representation, specification, and query language, and is intended for professionals who want to use formal notations and formal methods, but may not be familiar with them.
Attempto Controlled English is a query language that is also a controlled natural language.

Controlled natural language

controlled languagecontrolledcontrolled versions
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a subset of standard English with a restricted syntax and restricted semantics described by a small set of construction and interpretation rules.
Attempto Controlled English

Specification language

specificationdescription languagesformal specification language
ACE can serve as knowledge representation, specification, and query language, and is intended for professionals who want to use formal notations and formal methods, but may not be familiar with them.
Attempto Controlled English

ClearTalk

ClearTalk, another machine-readable knowledge representation language
Attempto Controlled English

English grammar

Englishgrammarthere
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a subset of standard English with a restricted syntax and restricted semantics described by a small set of construction and interpretation rules.

University of Zurich

ZurichZürichZurich University
It has been under development at the University of Zurich since 1995.

Knowledge representation and reasoning

knowledge representationrepresentationknowledge
ACE can serve as knowledge representation, specification, and query language, and is intended for professionals who want to use formal notations and formal methods, but may not be familiar with them.

Requirements analysis

requirementsanalysisanalysts
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Automated theorem proving

automated theorem provertheorem provertheorem proving
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Automatic summarization

text summarizationsummarizationdocument summarization
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Ontology (information science)

ontologyontologiesontological
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Health informatics

medical informaticsbiomedical informaticshealth information
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Planning

forethoughtplanplanned
ACE and its related tools have been used in the fields of software specifications, theorem proving, text summaries, ontologies, rules, querying, medical documentation and planning.

Universal quantification

universal quantifieruniversally quantifieduniversal
ACE interpretation rules decide that (1) is interpreted as universally quantified, while (2) is interpreted as existentially quantified.

Existential quantification

existential quantifierthere exists
ACE interpretation rules decide that (1) is interpreted as universally quantified, while (2) is interpreted as existentially quantified.

Deixis

deicticdeicticallydeictics
Interpretation rules resolve the anaphoric references in (3): the tie and it of the second sentence refer to a new tie of the first sentence, while his and the man of the second sentence refer to a man of the first sentence.

Discourse representation theory

Discourse Representation Structurediscourse representation structuresDRT
The Attempto Parsing Engine (APE) translates ACE texts unambiguously into discourse representation structures (DRS) that use a variant of the language of first-order logic.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
The Attempto Parsing Engine (APE) translates ACE texts unambiguously into discourse representation structures (DRS) that use a variant of the language of first-order logic.

Formal language

formal language theoryformal languageslanguage
Though ACE appears perfectly natural – it can be read and understood by any speaker of English – it is in fact a formal language. A DRS can be further translated into other formal languages, for instance AceRules with various semantics, OWL, and SWRL.

Web Ontology Language

OWLWeb Ontology Language (OWL)OWL2
A DRS can be further translated into other formal languages, for instance AceRules with various semantics, OWL, and SWRL.

Semantic Web Rule Language

SWRLsemantic rules
A DRS can be further translated into other formal languages, for instance AceRules with various semantics, OWL, and SWRL.

Inference

inferredinferlogical inference
Translating an ACE text into (a fragment of) first-order logic allows users to reason about the text, for instance to verify, to validate, and to query it.

Formal verification

program verificationverificationverified
Translating an ACE text into (a fragment of) first-order logic allows users to reason about the text, for instance to verify, to validate, and to query it.

Information retrieval

queryretrievalqueries
Translating an ACE text into (a fragment of) first-order logic allows users to reason about the text, for instance to verify, to validate, and to query it.