Attention

concentrationfocusinattentionvisual attentionattentivenessconcentrateattentivedirected attentionDivided attentionfocus of attention
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.wikipedia
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Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.

Arousal

physiological arousalarousedactivation
It is a state of arousal.
Arousal is important in regulating consciousness, attention, alertness, and information processing.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
With the development of these technological innovations, neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques.
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

Working memory

immediate memoryworkingworking memory capacity
Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes like working memory and psychological vigilance.
The central executive is responsible inter alia for directing attention to relevant information, suppressing irrelevant information and inappropriate actions, and coordinating cognitive processes when more than one task is simultaneously performed.

Michael Posner (psychologist)

Michael PosnerMichael I. PosnerPosner
Psychologist Michael Posner (then already renowned for his influential work on visual selective attention) and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention.
Michael I. Posner (born September 12, 1936) is an American psychologist, the editor of numerous cognitive and neuroscience compilations, and an eminent researcher in the field of attention.

Frontal lobe

frontal cortexfrontalfrontal lobes
In contrast, controlled eye movements are commanded by areas in the frontal lobe.
The dopaminergic pathways are associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation.

Attentional control

selective attentionconcentrationattention
The second aspect is called top-down processing, also known as goal-driven, endogenous attention, attentional control or executive attention.
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.

Vigilance (psychology)

vigilancepsychological vigilancevigilant
Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes like working memory and psychological vigilance.
In modern psychology, vigilance, also termed sustained concentration, is defined as the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time.

Perceptual load theory

A "hugely influential" theory regarding selective attention is the perceptual load theory, which states that there are two mechanisms that affect attention: cognitive and perceptual.
Perceptual load theory is a psychological theory of attention.

Auditory spatial attention

auditory
Auditory spatial attention is a specific form of attention, involving the focusing of auditory perception to a location in space.

Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
The relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration.
In the attention schema theory, the value of explaining the feature of awareness and attributing it to a person is to gain a useful predictive model of that person's attentional processing.

Mindfulness

mindfulness meditationmindfulMindfulness (psychology)
* Mindfulness: Mindfulness has been conceptualized as a clinical model of attention.
Synonyms for this "state of being aware" are wakefulness, attention, alertness, prudence, conscientiousness, awareness, consciousness, and observation.

Cognitive neuroscience

cognitive neuroscientistcognitivecognitive abilities
Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology.

Education

teachingeducationaleducationist
Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology.
Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural mechanisms of reading, numerical cognition, attention, and their attendant difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia, and ADHD as they relate to education.

Visual spatial attention

spatialattentionspatial attention
Both spatial attention and temporal attention have been incorporated in such classification efforts.
Visual spatial attention is a form of visual attention that involves directing attention to a location in space.

Anterior cingulate cortex

anterior cingulateanterior cingulate gyrusanterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
It is also involved in certain higher-level functions, such as attention allocation, reward anticipation, decision-making, ethics and morality, impulse control (e.g. performance monitoring and error detection), and emotion.

Visual temporal attention

temporal attentiontemporal
Both spatial attention and temporal attention have been incorporated in such classification efforts.
Visual temporal attention is a special case of visual attention that involves directing attention to specific instant of time.

Observational learning

social learningobservationmodeling
Simultaneous attention is demonstrated by children in Indigenous communities, who learn through this type of attention to their surroundings.
The heightened value towards observation allows children to multi-task and actively engage in simultaneous activities.

Executive functions

executive functioncognitive controlexecutive functioning
The second aspect is called top-down processing, also known as goal-driven, endogenous attention, attentional control or executive attention.
For example, Posner proposed that there is a separate "executive" branch of the attentional system, which is responsible for focusing attention on selected aspects of the environment.

Distraction

distractedDiversiondistractibility
Walter Benjamin described this experience as "reception in a state of distraction."
Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information.

Task-positive network

dorsal attention networktask-positive
This network can be related to other research as well; the dorsal attention network is tied to spatial orienting.
The task-positive network is a network of areas in the human brain that typically responds with activation increases to attention-demanding tasks in functional imaging studies.

Mental chronometry

speed of processingreaction timeCognitive chronometry
Franciscus Donders used mental chronometry to study attention and it was considered a major field of intellectual inquiry by authors such as Sigmund Freud.
Due to momentary attentional lapses, there is a considerable amount of variability in an individual's response time, which does not tend to follow a normal (Gaussian) distribution.

Cocktail party effect

cocktail party problemselective attention
Modern research on attention began with the analysis of the "cocktail party problem" by Colin Cherry in 1953.
The cocktail party effect is the phenomenon of the brain's ability to focus one's auditory attention (an effect of selective attention in the brain) on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, as when a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy room.

Broadbent's filter model of attention

attention bottleneckfilter model of attention
Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention states that information is held in a pre-attentive temporary store, and only sensory events that have some physical feature in common are selected to pass into the limited capacity processing system.
Broadbent's filter model is an early selection theory of attention.