Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivityhyperactiveattention-deficit hyperactivity disorderADDattention-deficit disorderattention deficit/hyperactivity disorderattention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.wikipedia
1,571 Related Articles

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management

ADHD managementADHD medicationattention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treatments
ADHD management recommendations vary by country and usually involve some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management options are evidence-based practices with established treatment efficacy for ADHD.

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

adult ADHDattentional deficitsadult ADD
About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as adult ADHD, adult with ADHD, or simply ADHD in adults, formerly AADD) is the neurobiological condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
It is characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.
Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

controversy about ADHDADHD controversiesconsidered controversial
ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.
Frequently observed differences in the brain between ADHD and non-ADHD patients have been discovered, but it is uncertain if or how these differences give rise to the symptoms of ADHD.

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTourettetourettes
Tourette's syndrome
Among those who are seen in specialty clinics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present at higher rates.

Neurodevelopmental disorder

neurodevelopmental disordersneurodevelopmentalatypical brain development
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
7) Genetic disorders, such as fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes

Sluggish cognitive tempo

concentration deficit disordercriticized for his worksSCT symptoms
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a cluster of symptoms that potentially comprises another attention disorder. It may occur in 30–50% of ADHD cases, regardless of the subtype.
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is the term for a syndrome that may comprise a novel and distinct attention disorder from ADHD.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). Boys diagnosed with the combined ADHD subtype are more likely to have a mood disorder. Adults with ADHD sometimes also have bipolar disorder, which requires careful assessment to accurately diagnose and treat both conditions.
Other conditions that may present similarly include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder as well as a number of medical conditions.

Oppositional defiant disorder

ODDoppositional defiance disorderoppositional-defiant disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which occur with ADHD in about 50% and 20% of cases respectively. They are characterized by antisocial behaviors such as stubbornness, aggression, frequent temper tantrums, deceitfulness, lying, and stealing. About half of those with hyperactivity and ODD or CD develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Brain imaging supports that conduct disorder and ADHD are separate conditions.
ODD also tends to occur in families with a history of ADHD, substance use disorders, or mood disorders, suggesting that a vulnerability to develop ODD may be inherited.

Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocial
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which occur with ADHD in about 50% and 20% of cases respectively. They are characterized by antisocial behaviors such as stubbornness, aggression, frequent temper tantrums, deceitfulness, lying, and stealing. About half of those with hyperactivity and ODD or CD develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Brain imaging supports that conduct disorder and ADHD are separate conditions.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in this population, and children with the disorder may also engage in substance abuse." CD is differentiated from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in that children with ODD do not commit aggressive or antisocial acts against other people, animals, and property, though many children diagnosed with ODD are subsequently rediagnosed with CD.

Dopamine transporter

DATdopaminedopamine plasma membrane transport proteins
Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH.
DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism.

Dopamine

DAdopaminergic systemdopaminergic
Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.
Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity.

Conduct disorder

conduct disordersConduct problemsantisocial conduct disorders
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which occur with ADHD in about 50% and 20% of cases respectively. They are characterized by antisocial behaviors such as stubbornness, aggression, frequent temper tantrums, deceitfulness, lying, and stealing. About half of those with hyperactivity and ODD or CD develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Brain imaging supports that conduct disorder and ADHD are separate conditions.
Specifically, children in this group have greater levels of ADHD symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, more academic problems, increased family dysfunction, and higher likelihood of aggression and violence.

Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis

superior hunting skills
In certain environments, some ADHD traits may have offered personal advantages to individuals, such as quicker response to predators or superior hunting skills.
The hunter vs. farmer hypothesis is a proposed explanation of the nature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) first suggested by radio host Thom Hartmann in his book Attention Deficit Disorder: a Different Perception.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Sleep disorders and ADHD commonly co-exist. They can also occur as a side effect of medications used to treat ADHD. In children with ADHD, insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with behavioral therapy the preferred treatment. Problems with sleep initiation are common among individuals with ADHD but often they will be deep sleepers and have significant difficulty getting up in the morning. Melatonin is sometimes used in children who have sleep onset insomnia.
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, dementia, and ADHD.

Social skills

interpersonal skillssocial skillsocially awkward
People with ADHD of all ages are more likely to have problems with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships.
People with ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCD
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) can co-occur with ADHD and shares many of its characteristics.
The involvement of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in OCD as well as the high rates of comorbidity between OCD and ADHD have led some to draw a link in their mechanism.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome has been found to be more common in those with ADHD and is often due to iron deficiency anemia. However, restless legs can simply be a part of ADHD and requires careful assessment to differentiate between the two disorders.
An association has been observed between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and RLS or periodic limb movement disorder.

Dopamine receptor D4

D 4 DRD47 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4
Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH.
It is linked to many neurological and psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, ADHD, addictive behaviors, Parkinson's disease, and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

Nocturnal enuresis

bedwettingbed wettingbed-wetting
People with ADHD have an increased risk of persistent bed wetting.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Children with ADHD are 2.7 times more likely to have bedwetting issues.

Handwriting

handwrittenhandshand
Difficulties managing anger are more common in children with ADHD as are poor handwriting and delays in speech, language and motor development.
Children with ADHD have been found to be more likely to have less legible handwriting, make more spelling errors, more insertions and/or deletions of letters and more corrections.

Tantrum

temper tantrumstemper tantrummeltdown
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which occur with ADHD in about 50% and 20% of cases respectively. They are characterized by antisocial behaviors such as stubbornness, aggression, frequent temper tantrums, deceitfulness, lying, and stealing. About half of those with hyperactivity and ODD or CD develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Brain imaging supports that conduct disorder and ADHD are separate conditions.
Some people who have neurological disorders such as autism, ADHD, and intellectual disability could be more vulnerable to tantrums than others, although anyone experiencing brain damage (temporary or permanent) can suffer from tantrums.

Social construct theory of ADHD

The social construct theory of ADHD suggests that because the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" behavior are socially constructed, (i.e. jointly created and validated by all members of society, and in particular by physicians, parents, teachers, and others) it then follows that subjective valuations and judgements determine which diagnostic criteria are used and, thus, the number of people affected.
The social construction theory of ADHD argues that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not necessarily an actual pathology, but that an ADHD diagnosis is a socially constructed explanation to describe behaviors that simply do not meet prescribed social norms.

Hyperfocus

Focusunresponsively focused
Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many people with ADHD can have sustained attention for tasks they find interesting or rewarding (known as hyperfocus).
Conditions associated with hyperfocus or perseveration include neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those considered to be on the autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).