Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivityattention-deficit hyperactivity disorderhyperactiveADDattention-deficit disorderattention deficit/hyperactivity disorderattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderattention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.wikipedia
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Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

adult ADHDattentional deficitsadult attention-deficit disorder
About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the psychiatric condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management

ADHD managementAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treatmentsADHD medication
ADHD management recommendations vary by country and usually involve some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management options are evidence-based practices with established treatment efficacy for ADHD.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
It is characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive activity and acting without regards to consequences, which are otherwise not appropriate for a person's age.
Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

Controversy about ADHDADHD as a biological illnessADHD controversies
ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.
Frequently observed differences in the brain between ADHD and non-ADHD patients have been discovered, but it is uncertain if or how these differences give rise to the symptoms of ADHD.

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettes
Among those who are seen in specialty clinics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present at higher rates.

Neurodevelopmental disorder

neurodevelopmental disordersneurodevelopmentalneurodevelopmental disability
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

Sluggish cognitive tempo

Concentration deficit disordercriticized for his worksSCT symptoms
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is the term for a syndrome that may comprise a novel and distinct attention disorder from ADHD.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Some examples include autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Symptoms of ADHD, such as low mood and poor self-image, mood swings, and irritability, can be confused with dysthymia, cyclothymia or bipolar disorder as well as with borderline personality disorder.
Other conditions that may present similarly include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder as well as a number of medical conditions.

Oppositional defiant disorder

oppositional defiance disorderODDoppositional-defiant disorder
Additionally, it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
ODD also tends to occur in families with a history of ADHD, substance use disorders, or mood disorders, suggesting that a vulnerability to develop ODD may be inherited.

Dopamine transporter

DATdopamineSLC6A3
Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH.
DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, alcoholism, and substance use disorder.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.
Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity.

Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocial
Additionally, it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in this population, and children with the disorder may also engage in substance abuse." CD is differentiated from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in that children with ODD do not commit aggressive or antisocial acts against other people, animals, and property, though many children diagnosed with ODD are subsequently rediagnosed with CD.

Conduct disorder

conduct disordersConduct problemsantisocial conduct disorders
Additionally, it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
Specifically, children in this group have greater levels of ADHD symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, more academic problems, increased family dysfunction, and higher likelihood of aggression and violence.

Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis

superior hunting skills
In certain environments, some ADHD traits may have offered personal advantages to individuals, such as quicker response to predators or superior hunting skills.
The hunter vs. farmer hypothesis is a proposed explanation of the nature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) first suggested by radio host Thom Hartmann in his book Attention Deficit Disorder: a Different Perception.

Social skills

interpersonal skillssocial skillsocially awkward
People with ADHD of all ages are more likely to have problems with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships.
People with ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
An association has been observed between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and RLS or periodic limb movement disorder.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
Studies have also shown that children who are on the Autism spectrum or have learning disabilities, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or related neurological diseases can benefit from the use of melatonin.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCD
The involvement of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in OCD as well as the high rates of comorbidity between OCD and ADHD have led some to draw a link in their mechanism.

Dopamine receptor D4

D 4 DRD47 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4
Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH.
It is linked to many neurological and psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, ADHD, addictive behaviors, Parkinson's disease, and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

Tantrum

temper tantrumstemper tantrummeltdown
Some people who have developmental disorders such as autism, ADHD, and intellectual disability could be more vulnerable to tantrums than others, although anyone experiencing brain damage (temporary or permanent) can suffer from tantrums.

Social construct theory of ADHD

The social construct theory of ADHD suggests that because the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" behavior are socially constructed, (i.e. jointly created and validated by all members of society, and in particular by physicians, parents, teachers, and others) it then follows that subjective valuations and judgements determine which diagnostic criteria are used and, thus, the number of people affected.
The social construction theory of ADHD argues that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not necessarily an actual pathology, but that an ADHD diagnosis is a socially constructed explanation to describe behaviors that simply do not meet prescribed social norms.

Handwriting

handwrittenhandshand
Difficulties managing anger are more common in children with ADHD as are poor handwriting and delays in speech, language and motor development.
Children with ADHD have been found to be more likely to have less legible handwriting, make more spelling errors, more insertions and/or deletions of letters and more corrections.

Hyperfocus

Focusunresponsively focused
Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many people with ADHD can have sustained attention for tasks they find interesting or rewarding (known as hyperfocus).
Conditions associated with hyperfocus or perseveration include neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those considered to be on the autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).