Attribute–value pair

key-value pairattribute-value pairname-value pairkey–value pairskey-valuekey-value pairskey–value pairname–value pairs(key, value)attribute-value pairs
A name–value pair, key–value pair, field–value pair or attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications.wikipedia
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Associative array

mapdictionariesdictionary
Most of these implement the general model of an associative array: an unordered list of unique attributes with associated values.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)JSON-likedictionary
Some data serialization formats such as JSON support arbitrarily deep nesting.
In computing, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) ( "jay-son", ) is an open-standard file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types (or any other serializable value).

INI file

INI.iniINI files
Other data representations are restricted to one level of nesting, such as INI file's section/name/value.
INI files are simple text files with a basic structure composed of sections, properties, and values.

HTML

HyperText Markup Language(X)HTML.html
Element attributes in SGML, HTML, and XML
Most of the attributes of an element are name-value pairs, separated by and written within the start tag of an element after the element's name.

Entity–attribute–value model

entity-attribute-value modelEAVentities
Entity–attribute–value model
EAV, as a general-purpose means of knowledge representation, originated with the concept of "association lists" (attribute-value pairs).

Data (computing)

datacomputer datadata representation
A name–value pair, key–value pair, field–value pair or attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications.

Data structure

data structuresstructurestructures
Designers often desire an open-ended data structure that allows for future extension without modifying existing code or data.

Data model

structured datastructureddata models
In such situations, all or part of the data model may be expressed as a collection of 2-tuples in the form <attribute name, value> with each element being an attribute–value pair.

Tuple

5-tuplen''-tupletuples
In such situations, all or part of the data model may be expressed as a collection of 2-tuples in the form <attribute name, value> with each element being an attribute–value pair.

Computer language

computer languageslanguagelanguages
Some computer languages implement attribute-value pairs, or more frequently collections of attribute-value pairs, as standard language features.

Serialization

serializeddata serializationserializable
Some data serialization formats such as JSON support arbitrarily deep nesting.

Email

e-mailelectronic maile-mails
E-mail, in RFC 2822 headers

URL

URLsweb addressuniform resource locator
Query strings, in URLs

Communication protocol

protocolprotocolscommunications protocol
Optional elements in network protocols, such as IP, where they often appear as TLV (type-length-value) triples

Internet Protocol

IPInternet Protocol (IP)IP-based
Optional elements in network protocols, such as IP, where they often appear as TLV (type-length-value) triples

Type-length-value

TLVTag Length ValueTag-Length-Value
Optional elements in network protocols, such as IP, where they often appear as TLV (type-length-value) triples

BibTeX

BibTeX/BibLaTeXLaTeX/BibTeX
Bibliographic information, as in BibTeX and Dublin Core metadata

Dublin Core

DCMIDublin Core Metadata InitiativeDublin Core Metadata Element Set
Bibliographic information, as in BibTeX and Dublin Core metadata

XML

Extensible Markup LanguageExtensible Markup Language (XML).xml
Element attributes in SGML, HTML, and XML

Metadata

meta datameta-datacommunications metadata
General metadata in RDF

Resource Description Framework

RDFResource Description Framework (RDF)RDF triples
General metadata in RDF

Database

database management systemdatabasesdatabase systems
Some kinds of database systems — namely a key-value database