Audita tremendi

Audita tremendi was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory VIII on October 29, 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.wikipedia
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Third Crusade

crusadeThirdcrusaders
Audita tremendi was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory VIII on October 29, 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.
The new pope, Gregory VIII, in the bull Audita tremendi proclaimed that the capture of Jerusalem was punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe and called for a new crusade to the Holy Land.

Pope Gregory VIII

Gregory VIIIAlberto di Morra173rd pope
Audita tremendi was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory VIII on October 29, 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.
In response to the defeat of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin, Gregory issued the papal bull Audita tremendi calling for the Third Crusade.

Battle of Hattin

Battle of HittinHattinBattle of the Horns of Hattin
It was issued just days after Gregory had succeeded Urban III as pope, in response to the defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on July 4 of 1187.
Urban's successor, Pope Gregory VIII, issued the bull Audita tremendi calling for a new crusade within days of his election.

Siege of Jerusalem (1187)

fall of JerusalemSiege of Jerusalemcaptured Jerusalem
Jerusalem itself had fallen to Saladin on October 2 (see Siege of Jerusalem), but news of that had not yet reached Europe by the time the bull was issued at the end of the month.
Plans were immediately made for a new crusade; on October 29, Pope Gregory VIII issued the bull Audita tremendi, even before hearing of the fall of Jerusalem.

Crusades

crusadeCrusadersCrusader
The bull offered a plenary indulgence, and offered church protection for the property of those who undertook the journey; thus through this logic the bull draws the conclusion that, due to the sins of the west, Saladin was able to achieve victory in Hattin and its aftermath, and now the people of the west must repent by going on a crusade to recapture the kingdom.
Pope Gregory VIII issued a papal bull titled Audita tremendi that proposed what became known as the Third Crusade.

Papal bull

bullbullspapal bulls
Audita tremendi was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory VIII on October 29, 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.

Pope Urban III

Urban IIIUberto CrivelliIII
It was issued just days after Gregory had succeeded Urban III as pope, in response to the defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on July 4 of 1187.

Pope

PapacypapalBishop of Rome
It was issued just days after Gregory had succeeded Urban III as pope, in response to the defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on July 4 of 1187.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

JerusalemKing of JerusalemCrusader
It was issued just days after Gregory had succeeded Urban III as pope, in response to the defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on July 4 of 1187.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
Jerusalem itself had fallen to Saladin on October 2 (see Siege of Jerusalem), but news of that had not yet reached Europe by the time the bull was issued at the end of the month.

Saladin

Salah ad-DinSaladdinSalah ad-Din (Saladin)
Jerusalem itself had fallen to Saladin on October 2 (see Siege of Jerusalem), but news of that had not yet reached Europe by the time the bull was issued at the end of the month.

Latin grammar

Latinablative absolutegrammar
(the phrase "audita severitate" is a Latin grammatical construction known as ablative absolute).

Quantum praedecessores

papal bull
The text follows the same format as Quantum praedecessores, the bull calling for the Second Crusade in 1145.

Second Crusade

SecondCrusadersCrusade
The text follows the same format as Quantum praedecessores, the bull calling for the Second Crusade in 1145.

Crusader states

CrusaderCrusader stateOutremer
It points to the sins of the Latin States as the reason for this great loss.

Latin Church

Latin CatholicWestern ChurchLatin Rite
As a result, the people of Latin Christendom must repent for their sins.

Indulgence

indulgencesplenary indulgenceEnchiridion Indulgentiarum
The bull offered a plenary indulgence, and offered church protection for the property of those who undertook the journey; thus through this logic the bull draws the conclusion that, due to the sins of the west, Saladin was able to achieve victory in Hattin and its aftermath, and now the people of the west must repent by going on a crusade to recapture the kingdom.

Jonathan Riley-Smith

Riley-Smith, JonathanJonathan Simon Christopher Riley-SmithJ. S. C. Riley-Smith

Siege of Acre (1189–1191)

Siege of AcreSiege of Acre (1189–91)Battle of Acre
Pope Gregory VIII issued a papal bull named Audita tremendi that proposed a further Crusade later numbered the third to recapture Jerusalem.

Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre

Joscius
His successor Gregory VIII issued the bull Audita tremendi, calling for a new crusade and directed to the major European monarchs.