A report on Auditory hallucination

Form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.

- Auditory hallucination

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Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

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Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.

Major symptoms include hallucinations (typically hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized thinking.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.

Psychosis

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Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.
Bust of Hippocrates
Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907)

They may consist of simple sensations (such as lights, colors, sounds, tastes, or smells) or more detailed experiences (such as seeing and interacting with animals and people, hearing voices, and having complex tactile sensations).

My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations

Hallucination

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Perception in the absence of an external stimulus that has the qualities of a real perception.

Perception in the absence of an external stimulus that has the qualities of a real perception.

My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations

Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive.

Emil Kraepelin's dichotomy (c. 1898) continues to influence classification and diagnosis in psychiatry.

Schizoaffective disorder

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Mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and an unstable mood.

Mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and an unstable mood.

Emil Kraepelin's dichotomy (c. 1898) continues to influence classification and diagnosis in psychiatry.
Karl Kahlbaum (1828–1899)
Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926). Embracing the Kraepelinian dichotomy in DSM-III in 1980, while a step forward from psychodynamic explanations of the disorder, introduced significant problems in schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, as explained recently by the DSM-5 workgroup.

Auditory hallucinations, or "hearing voices", are most common.

Despair by Edvard Munch (1894), who is presumed to have lived with borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder

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Personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.

Personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.

Despair by Edvard Munch (1894), who is presumed to have lived with borderline personality disorder
One of the symptoms of BPD is an intense fear of abandonment.
Scarring as a result of self-harm, which is a common sign in borderline personality disorder.
The stages used in dialectical behavior therapy
Devaluation in Edvard Munch's Salome (1903). Idealization and devaluation of others in personal relations is a common trait in BPD. The painter Edvard Munch depicted his new friend, the violinist Eva Mudocci, in both ways within days. First as "a woman seen by a man in love", then as "a bloodthirsty and cannibalistic Salome". In modern times, Munch has been diagnosed as having had BPD.

Phenomenologically, research suggests that auditory verbal hallucinations found in patients with BPD cannot be reliably distinguished from those seen in schizophrenia.

A hearing aid such as this one may be used to help alleviate MES in some patients.

Musical ear syndrome

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A hearing aid such as this one may be used to help alleviate MES in some patients.

Musical ear syndrome (MES) describes a condition seen in people who have hearing loss and subsequently develop auditory hallucinations.

Earworm

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Catchy and/or memorable piece of music or saying that continuously occupies a person's mind even after it is no longer being played or spoken about.

Catchy and/or memorable piece of music or saying that continuously occupies a person's mind even after it is no longer being played or spoken about.

The phenomenon should not be confused with palinacousis, a rare medical condition caused by damage to the temporal lobe of the brain that results in auditory hallucinations.

Thought insertion

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Defined by the ICD-10 as the delusion that one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather belong to someone else and have been inserted into one's mind.

Defined by the ICD-10 as the delusion that one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather belong to someone else and have been inserted into one's mind.

Auditory hallucinations have two essential components: audibility and alienation.

Kurt Schneider

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German psychiatrist known largely for his writing on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, as well as personality disorders then known as psychopathic personalities.

German psychiatrist known largely for his writing on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, as well as personality disorders then known as psychopathic personalities.

Auditory hallucinations.

Exploding head syndrome

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Abnormal sensory perception during sleep in which a person experiences unreal noises that are loud and of short duration when falling asleep or waking up.

Abnormal sensory perception during sleep in which a person experiences unreal noises that are loud and of short duration when falling asleep or waking up.

Exploding head syndrome is classified under other parasomnias by the 2014 International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD, 3rd.Ed.) and is an unusual type of auditory hallucination in that it occurs in people who are not fully awake.