Augmentation Research Center

AugmentAugmented Human Intellect Research Center
SRI International's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing.wikipedia
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Douglas Engelbart

Doug EngelbartEngelbart Engelbart, Douglas
SRI International's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing. Some early ideas by Douglas Engelbart were developed in 1959 funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (now Rome Laboratory).
He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces.

NLS (computer system)

NLSoN-Line SystemAugment
The main product to come out of ARC was the revolutionary oN-Line System, better known by its abbreviation, NLS.
Designed by Douglas Engelbart and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the NLS system was the first to employ the practical use of hypertext links, the mouse, raster-scan video monitors, information organized by relevance, screen windowing, presentation programs, and other modern computing concepts.

SRI International

Stanford Research InstituteSRIStanford Research Institute International
SRI International's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing.
Douglas Engelbart, the founder of SRI's Augmentation Research Center (ARC), was the primary force behind the design and development of the multi-user oN-Line System (or NLS), featuring original versions of modern computer-human interface elements including bit-mapped displays, collaboration software, hypertext, and precursors to the graphical user interface such as the computer mouse.

Computer mouse

mousemicecomputer mice
ARC is also known for the invention of the "computer mouse" pointing device, and its role in the early formation of the Internet.
By 1963, Engelbart had already established a research lab at SRI, the Augmentation Research Center (ARC), to pursue his objective of developing both hardware and software computer technology to "augment" human intelligence.

Tymshare

Tymshare, Inc.SuperBasic
Engelbart recruited workers and ran the organization until the late 1970s when the project was commercialized and sold to Tymshare, which was eventually purchased by McDonnell Douglas.
Also in the 1970s, Tymshare acquired the Augmentation Research Center from SRI International.

AN/FSQ-32

Q-32
First experiments were done trying to connect a display at SRI to the massive one-of-a-kind AN/FSQ-32 computer at the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, California.
An early remote user of the prototype was the Augmentation Research Center at the Stanford Research Institute.

Robert Taylor (computer scientist)

Robert TaylorBob TaylorRobert W. Taylor
NASA began to provide major funding at the behest of Robert Taylor in 1964.
At the Fall 1968 Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco, Engelbart, Bill English, Jeff Rulifson and the rest of the Human Augmentation Research Center team at SRI showed on a big screen how he could manipulate a computer remotely located in Menlo Park, while sitting on a San Francisco stage, using his mouse.

Jeff Rulifson

J. F. Rulifson
During a 90-minute session at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in December 1968, Engelbart, Bill English, Jeff Rulifson and other ARC staffers presented their work in a live demonstration, including real-time video conferencing and interactive editing in an era when batch processing was still the paradigm for using computers.
Rulifson joined the Augmentation Research Center, at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in 1966, working on a form of software called “timesharing”.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. Licklider Licklider, J. C. R.Dr. J. C. R. Licklider
J. C. R. Licklider, the first director of the United States Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), funded the project in early 1963.
In 1960 his seminal paper on "Man-Computer Symbiosis" foreshadowed interactive computing, and he went on to fund early efforts in time-sharing and application development, most notably the work of Douglas Engelbart, who founded the Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute and created the famous On-Line System where the computer mouse was invented.

Bill English (computer engineer)

Bill EnglishWilliam English
During a 90-minute session at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in December 1968, Engelbart, Bill English, Jeff Rulifson and other ARC staffers presented their work in a live demonstration, including real-time video conferencing and interactive editing in an era when batch processing was still the paradigm for using computers.
William "Bill" K. English (born 1938) is an American computer engineer who contributed to the development of the computer mouse while working for Douglas Engelbart at SRI International's Augmentation Research Center.

The Mother of All Demos

Mother of All Demos1968 presentationdemonstrates
This was later called "the Mother of All Demos".
Much of Engelbart's thought that led to the development of his Augmentation Research Center (ARC), as well as the oN-Line System was derived from the "research culture" of World War II and the early Cold War.

InterNIC

Network Information CenterNICInternet Network Information Center
The library service evolved into the Internet Network Information Center managed by Elizabeth J. Feinler.
The NIC was based in Doug Engelbart's lab, the Augmentation Research Center, at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in Menlo Park, California.

ARPANET

ARPA networkARPAnet Working GroupArpanet/Darpanet
Engelbart had volunteered ARC to provide the first reference library service on the ARPANET while it was being designed.
The Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), where Douglas Engelbart had created the ground-breaking NLS system, a very important early hypertext system, and would run the Network Information Center (NIC), with the SDS 940 that ran NLS, named "Genie", being the first host attached;

Elizabeth J. Feinler

Elizabeth FeinlerElizabeth "Jake" FeinlerJake Feinler
The library service evolved into the Internet Network Information Center managed by Elizabeth J. Feinler.
Feinler was leading the Literature Research section of SRI's library when, in 1972, Doug Engelbart recruited her to join his Augmentation Research Center (ARC), which was sponsored by the Information Processing Techniques Office of the US Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA).

SDS 940

SDS-940940SDS-940 computer
In 1968 an SDS 940 computer running the Berkeley Timesharing System allowed multiple users.
Douglas Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) used an SDS 940 for their oN-Line System, more commonly known as NLS.

PARC (company)

Xerox PARCPARCPalo Alto Research Center
ARC was also indirectly covered in many other books about Xerox PARC, since that is where many ARC employees later fled to (and brought some of Engelbart's ideas with them).
PARC's West Coast location proved to be advantageous in the mid-1970s, when the lab was able to hire many employees of the nearby SRI Augmentation Research Center (ARC) as that facility's funding began falling, from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and U.S. Air Force (USAF).

Bertram Raphael

Bertram Raphael was put in charge of the project in 1976.
In 1976 he sold the NLS technology developed by the Augmentation Research Center (ARC), led by Douglas Engelbart, to Tymshare.

Thierry Bardini

The complex story of the rise and fall of ARC has been documented in a book by sociologist Thierry Bardini.
In 2000, he published Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing, a book about Douglas Engelbart's career and the rise and fall of the Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute.

Information processing

processingprocessprocessing of information
SRI International's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
ARC is also known for the invention of the "computer mouse" pointing device, and its role in the early formation of the Internet.

McDonnell Douglas

McDonnell Douglas CorporationDouglasMcDonnell-Douglas Corporation
Engelbart recruited workers and ran the organization until the late 1970s when the project was commercialized and sold to Tymshare, which was eventually purchased by McDonnell Douglas.

Rome Laboratory

Rome Air Development CenterRADC440L Data Reduction Center
Some early ideas by Douglas Engelbart were developed in 1959 funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (now Rome Laboratory).

United States Department of Defense

Department of DefenseU.S. Department of DefenseDoD
J. C. R. Licklider, the first director of the United States Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), funded the project in early 1963.

DARPA

ARPADefense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects Agency
J. C. R. Licklider, the first director of the United States Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), funded the project in early 1963.

Information Processing Techniques Office

Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)Information Processing Technology OfficeInformation Technology Office
J. C. R. Licklider, the first director of the United States Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), funded the project in early 1963.