Augmentative and alternative communication

AAC devicesaugmentative communicationAACAugmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Alternative and augmentative communication (AAC)AAC computer systemAlternative and augmentative communicationalternative communication approachesassistive language technologyaugmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or written language.wikipedia
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Sign language

sign languagesdeaf sign languagesigning
During the 1960s and 1970s, spurred by an increasing commitment in the West towards the inclusion of disabled individuals in mainstream society and developing the skills required for independence, the use of manual sign language and then graphic symbol communication grew greatly.
Although signing is used primarily by the deaf and hard of hearing, it is also used by hearing individuals, such as those unable to physically speak, those who have trouble with spoken language due to a disability or condition (augmentative and alternative communication), or those with deaf family members, such as children of deaf adults.

Cerebral palsy

palsycerebral palsy sufferersCP
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
Early use of augmentative and alternative communication systems may assist the child in developing spoken language skills.

Speech-generating device

speech generating devicesinging voice synthesizercommunication aids
An AAC aid is any "device, either electronic or non-electronic, that is used to transmit or receive messages"; such aids range from communication books to speech generating devices.
Speech-generating devices (SGDs), also known as voice output communication aids, are electronic augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems used to supplement or replace speech or writing for individuals with severe speech impairments, enabling them to verbally communicate.

Switch access scanning

scanned
Body parts, pointers, adapted mice, or eye tracking can be used to select target symbols directly, and switch access scanning is often used for indirect selection.
Switch access scanning is an indirect selection technique (or access method), used by an assistive technology user, including those who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to choose items from the selection set.

Tangible symbol systems

Tactile symbolstangible symbol cues
Tactile symbols which are textured objects, real objects or parts of real objects that are used as a communication symbols particularly for individuals with visual impairments and/or significant intellectual impairments.
Tangible symbols are a type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that uses objects or pictures that share a perceptual relationship with the items they represent as symbols.

Partner-assisted scanning

Partner assisted scanningletters on a spelling cardlistener scans through possible options
Alternatively, they may indicate yes or no while a listener scans through possible options.
Partner-assisted scanning or listener-assisted scanning is an augmentative and alternative communication technique used to enable a person with severe speech impairments to communicate.

Semantic compaction

In iconic encoding strategies, such as Semantic compaction, icons (picture symbols) are combined in a sequence to produce words or phrases.
Semantic compaction, (Minspeak), conceptually described as polysemic (multi-meaning) iconic encoding, is one of the three ways to represent language in Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

CRPDUN Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesUNCRPD
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities defines augmentative and alternative communication as forms of communication including languages as well as display of text, large-print, tactile communication, plain language, accessible multimedia and accessible information and communications technology.

Autocomplete

code completionautocompletionword prediction
Word prediction software may determine the words predicted based on their frequency in language, association with other words, past choices of the user, or grammatical suitability.
Along with language modeling, basic word prediction on AAC devices is often coupled with a recency model, where words that are used more frequently by the AAC user are more likely to be predicted.

Speech and language impairment

speech and language disorderspeech and language disordersspeech or language impairment
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
If speech is not practical for a patient, the SLP will work with the patient to decide upon an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) method or device to facilitate communication.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALSLou Gehrig's diseasemotor neurone disease
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
As ALS progresses, speech-language pathologists can recommend the use of augmentative and alternative communication such as voice amplifiers, speech-generating devices (or voice output communication devices) or low-tech communication techniques such as head mounted laser pointers, alphabet boards or yes/no signals.

Speech-language pathology

speech therapyspeech pathologyspeech therapist
AAC evaluations are often conducted by specialized teams which may include a speech-language pathologist, occupational therapist, rehabilitation engineer, physiotherapist, social worker and a physician.

Picture exchange communication system

Andy BodyPECSPicture Communication Exchange System
Picture Communication Exchange System (PECS) is a commonly used low-tech communication system that teach individuals how to request, comment, and answer questions through the use of line drawings known as picture communication symbols (PCS).
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication system developed and produced by Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc. PECS was developed in 1985 at the Delaware Autism Program by Andy Bondy, PhD, and Lori Frost, MS, CCC-SLP.

Inclusion (disability rights)

inclusioninclusivecultural rights
During the 1960s and 1970s, spurred by an increasing commitment in the West towards the inclusion of disabled individuals in mainstream society and developing the skills required for independence, the use of manual sign language and then graphic symbol communication grew greatly.

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
For example, the Amer-Ind code is based on Plains Indian Sign Language, and has been used with children with severe-profound disabilities, and adults with a variety of diagnoses including dementia, aphasia and dysarthria.
When a person's speech is insufficient, different kinds of augmentative and alternative communication could be considered such as alphabet boards, pictorial communication books, specialized software for computers or apps for tablets or smartphones.

Switch access

single switcha switchswitch controller
When the desired message is reached, the AAC user indicates the choice using an alternative selection technique such as a switch, vocalization or gesture.
Switches can be linked to a variety of devices, for example: Augmentative and Alternative Communication devices, switch adapted toys, switch interfaces for computer access, SMART Technology, sensory room equipment and environmental control devices

Dysarthria

slurred speechdifficulty speakingdysarthric
For example, the Amer-Ind code is based on Plains Indian Sign Language, and has been used with children with severe-profound disabilities, and adults with a variety of diagnoses including dementia, aphasia and dysarthria.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices that make coping with a dysarthria easier include speech synthesis and text-based telephones.

Janice Light

Researcher Janice Light identified four social purposes of communicative interaction in AAC: the expression of needs and wants to a listener, the transfer of information as in more general conversation, the development of social closeness through such things as jokes and cheering, and finally social etiquette practices such as "please" and "thank you".
As a Distinguished Professor, she teaches graduate courses and seminars in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and has developed an internationally recognized research program in AAC.

Blissymbols

BlissymbolicsBlissymbolBliss
Blissymbols were first used in Canada in 1971 to provide communication to those not able to use traditional orthography; their use quickly spread to other countries.
In 1971 Shirley McNaughton started a pioneer program at the Ontario Crippled Children's Centre (OCCC), aimed at children with cerebral palsy, from the approach of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

Assistive technology

assistive technologiesassistive deviceadaptive technology
For example, someone with spastic arm movements may require a key guard on top of the keyboard or touchscreen to reduce the selection of non-target items.

International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication

International Society for Alternative and Augmentative Communication
The International Society for Alternative and Augmentative Communication (ISAAC) was founded in 1983; its members included clinicians, teachers, rehabilitation engineers, researchers, and AAC users themselves.
Its stated purpose is to improve the communication abilities and quality of life of individuals with complex communication needs who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

Developmental verbal dyspraxia

Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD)apraxiacongenital language disorder
Developmental verbal dyspraxia, also known as Childhood apraxia of speech, is a developmental motor speech disorder involving impairments in the motor control of speech production.

Developmental disability

developmental disabilitiesdevelopmentally disabledmentally disabled
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language impairments, including congenital impairments such as cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment and autism, and acquired conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.