Augustus

OctavianAugustanCaesar AugustusOctavianusEmperor AugustusAugustus CaesarGaius OctaviusOctaviusAugustan ageGaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.wikipedia
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Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.
The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt.

Principate

early EmpireRoman PrincipateAugustan
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.

Second Triumvirate

triumvirstriumvirRoman Triumvir
Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC. The Triumvirate existed for two five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC to 33 BC. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.

Mark Antony

Marcus AntoniusAntonyMark Anthony
Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate.

Octavia (gens)

Octaviagens OctaviaOctavii
He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.
Over the following two centuries, the Octavii held many of the highest offices of the state; but the most celebrated of the family was Gaius Octavius, the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, who was proclaimed Augustus by the senate in 27 BC.

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)

Marcus Aemilius LepidusLepidusMarcus Lepidus
Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.

Battle of Actium

ActiumActium battlefieldvictory at Actium
Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.

Battle of Philippi

PhilippibattleBattle of Phillipi
Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.

History of the Roman Empire

late Roman Empirelate RomanRoman Empire
The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.
Civil war engulfed the Roman state in the mid 1st century BC, first between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and finally between Octavian and Mark Antony.

Pax Romana

height of the Roman Empirepeacerelative peace
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana.
It is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BCE and concluding in 180 CE with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the "good emperors".

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but then turned against each other.

Constitution of the Roman Empire

constitutionconstitutional frameworkconstitutional reforms
The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.
Beginning with the first emperor, Augustus, the emperor and the senate were theoretically two co-equal branches of government.

Tiberius

Tiberius Claudius NeroEmperor TiberiusTiberian
He was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.

Livia

Livia DrusillaJulia AugustaLivia Augusta
However, there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta ; 30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.

Praetorian Guard

praetorianPraetoriansPraetorian cohorts
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
With the republic's transition into the Roman Empire, however, the first emperor, Augustus, founded the Guard as his personal security detail.

Roman roads

Roman roadroadroads
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during the tenure of Augustus, is as follows:

Imperial cult of ancient Rome

Imperial cultdeifiedRoman Imperial cult
Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius ("Son of the Divine") to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar.
Its framework was based on Roman and Greek precedents, and was formulated during the early Principate of Augustus.

Cursus publicus

Public Postdemosios dromosdromos
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
The Emperor Augustus created it to transport messages, officials, and tax revenues between the provinces and Italy.

Cohortes urbanae

urban cohorturban cohortscity garrison
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
The cohortes urbanae (Latin meaning urban cohorts) of ancient Rome were created by Augustus to counterbalance the enormous power of the Praetorian Guard in the city of Rome and serve as a police force.

Vigiles

fire-fighting servicesUrban VigilesVigiles Urbani
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
The privately operated system became ineffective, so in the interest of keeping himself and Rome safe, Augustus instituted a new public firefighting force called the Vigiles.

Palatine Hill

PalatinepalatiumCollis Palatium
While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 km from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC. He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.
From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here.

Temple of Caesar

Divus Juliustempletemple of the Deified Julius
Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius ("Son of the Divine") to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar.
The temple was begun by Augustus in 42 BC after the senate deified Julius Caesar posthumously.

Pannonia

PannonianRoman timesPannonians
Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak).

Dalmatia (Roman province)

Dalmatiaprovince of DalmatiaRoman province of Dalmatia
Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
In response to this, Octavian (who later became the emperor Augustus) conducted a series of campaigns in Illyricum (35-33 BC).