Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh
Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Battle of Samugarh
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
18th-century portrait of Dara Shikoh
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Dara Shikoh
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Dara's brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years, ca 1637
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
Sepoy's loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, maintain their positions around Agra, in the year 1658. - by William Purser
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Young Dara Shikoh (Left) and Mian Mir (Right)
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
The marriage of Dara Shikoh and Nadira Begum, 1875–90
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Wedding procession of Dara Shikoh, with Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb behind him. Royal Collection Trust, London.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Dara Shikoh with his army
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Humayun's Tomb, where the remains of Dara Shikoh were interred in an unidentified grave.
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
A page from the Majma-ul-Bahrain, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta.
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Dara Shikoh (with Mian Mir and Mullah Shah Badakhshi), ca. 1635
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
A painting from the Persian translation of Yoga Vasistha manuscript, 1602
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
A Prince in Iranian Costume by Muhammad Khan. Dara Shikoh Album, Agra, 1633–34.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
Shah Jahan Receiving Dara Shikoh
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Red Fort
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Agra Fort
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Silver Rupee from Multan
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Dara Shikoh, also known as Dara Shukoh, (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

- Dara Shikoh

Battle of Samugarh, Jang-e-Samugarh, (May 29, 1658), was a decisive battle in the struggle for the throne during the Mughal war of succession (1658–1659) between the sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan after the emperor's serious illness in September 1657.

- Battle of Samugarh

The battle of Samugarh was fought between his sons Dara Shikoh (the eldest son and heir apparent) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh (third and fourth sons of Shah Jahan).

- Battle of Samugarh

In the war of succession which ensued after Shah Jahan's illness in 1657, Dara was defeated by his younger brother Prince Muhiuddin (later, the Emperor Aurangzeb).

- Dara Shikoh

He held administrative and military posts under his father Shah Jahan ((r.

- Aurangzeb

In September 1657, Shah Jahan nominated his eldest and liberalist son Dara Shikoh as his successor, a move repudiated by Aurangzeb, who proclaimed himself emperor in February 1658.

- Aurangzeb

In September 1657, Shah Jahan was ailing from an illness and he appointed his eldest son Dara Shikoh as his successor.

- Shah Jahan

Aurangzeb's decisive victory at the battle of Samugarh in May 1658 cemented his sovereignty and his suzerainty was acknowledged throughout the Empire.

- Aurangzeb

This nomination led to a succession crisis among his three sons, after which Shah Jahan's third son Aurangzeb ((r.

- Shah Jahan

Despite strong support from Shah Jahan, who had recovered enough from his illness to remain a strong factor in the struggle for supremacy, and the victory of his army led by his eldest son Sulaiman Shikoh over Shah Shuja in the battle of Bahadurpur on 14 February 1658, Dara Shikoh was defeated by Aurangzeb and Murad during the Battle of Samugarh, 13 km from Agra on 30 May 1658.

- Dara Shikoh

He faced Dara's army near Agra and defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh.

- Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Portrait of Murad Bakhsh c. 1655

Murad Bakhsh

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Muhammad Murad Bakhsh ,

Muhammad Murad Bakhsh ,

Portrait of Murad Bakhsh c. 1655
Murad Bakhsh in his 30s, portrait circa 1655
Murad Baksh, younger brother of Aurangzeb

(9 October 1624 – 14 December 1661 ) was a Mughal prince and the youngest surviving son of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal.

He was the Subedar of Balkh, till he was replaced by his elder brother Aurangzeb in the year 1647.

Murad's siblings included his two politically powerful sisters, the princesses Jahanara Begum and Roshanara Begum, as well as the heir-apparent to his father, his eldest brother, Crown Prince Dara Shikoh and the future Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

In fact, it was the ferocious charge led by Murad Bakhsh and his Sowars that eventually turned the outcome of the battle in favor of Aurangzeb during the Battle of Samugarh.