A report on Mughal EmpireAurangzeb and Bengal Subah

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
Map of Bengal Subah
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh (c. 1665)
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
The Mughal absorption of Bengal initially progressed during the reigns of the first two emperors Babur and Humayun
Shah Alam II on horseback
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Akbar developed the modern Bengali calendar
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Dhaka, the capital of Bengal, was named Jahangir Nagar in honor of the fourth Mughal monarch Jahangir
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Robert Clive meets Mir Jafar at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Mobile artillery battries, loyal to the Nawab of Bengal.
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Bengali curved roofs were copied by Mughal architects in other parts of the empire, such as in the Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Nimtoli Deuri, named after the neem tree, is now a property of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, situated in Dhaka, Bangladesh is now a Heritage Museum.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
A riverside mosque in Mughal Dhaka
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Armenian church and cemetery in Dhaka
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Maddison's estimates of global GDP, China and India being the most powerful until the 18th century.
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
A 3D reconstruction of the Bara Katra in modern-day Dhaka
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
Munim Khan (seated, right), the first Viceroy of Mughal Bengal (1574–1575)
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Man Singh I, the Rajput Viceroy of Bengal (1594–1606)
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Shaista Khan, Viceroy (1664–1688)
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Viceroy Muhammad Azam Shah (1678–1679), later Mughal Emperor
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Viceroy Azim-us-Shan (1697–1712), later Mughal Emperor
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Daud Khan receives a robe from Munim Khan
The remnants of the empire in 1751
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Bibi Mariam Cannon
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Jahan Kosha Cannon
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Battle of Chittagong in 1666 between the Mughals and Arakanese
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Jamdani muslin is a legacy of Mughal Bengal
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Murshidabad-style painting of a woman playing the sitar
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
Scroll painting of a Ghazi riding a Bengal tiger
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (c. 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb and by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb

The Bengal Subah (সুবাহ বাংলা; ), also referred to as Mughal Bengal (মোগল বাংলা), was the largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire (and later an independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal) encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odissa between the 16th and 18th centuries.

- Bengal Subah

This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent.

- Mughal Empire

During the struggle for succession with his brothers Prince Aurangazeb, Prince Dara Shikoh and Prince Murad Baksh, Prince Shuja proclaimed himself as the Mughal Emperor in Bengal.

- Bengal Subah

Under his reign,India contributed 25% to World GDP, surpassing Qing China, making it the World largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe, and its largest and wealthiest subdivision, the Bengal Subah, signaled proto-industrialization.

- Aurangzeb

Around 80% of Mughal India's imports were bullion, mostly silver, with major sources of imported bullion including the New World and Japan, which in turn imported large quantities of textiles and silk from the Bengal Subah province.

- Mughal Empire
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

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Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

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Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

Shihab al-Din Muhammad Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan I, was the fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

This nomination led to a succession crisis among his three sons, after which Shah Jahan's third son Aurangzeb ((r.

In November 1623, he found safe asylum in Bengal Subah after he was driven from Agra and the Deccan.


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Regional development, alongside commercial agriculture, of rural handicraft production for external markets.

Regional development, alongside commercial agriculture, of rural handicraft production for external markets.

Outside of Europe, major examples of economic phenomena classified as proto-industrialisation by historians were in Mughal India and Song China.

Some historians have identified proto-industrialization in the early modern Indian subcontinent, mainly in its wealthiest and largest subdivision, the Mughal Bengal

During the 17th–18th centuries, under the auspices of Shaista Khan, the comparatively liberal uncle of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb as the Subehdar of Bengal, sustained growth was being experienced in manufacturing industries, exceeding China.

East India Company

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English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601
fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies
The emperor Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour, watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others
Document with the original vermilion seal of Tokugawa Ieyasu, granting trade privileges in Japan to the East India Company in 1613
French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb
Rear view of the East India Company's Factory at Cossimbazar
Company painting depicting an official of the East India Company, c. 1760
Saltpetre used for gunpowder was one of the major trade goods of the company
The expanded East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton, c. 1800
Addiscombe Seminary, photographed in c.1859, with cadets in the foreground
Ships in Bombay Harbour, c. 1731
was one of the five East Indiamen the Spanish fleet captured in 1780
English, Dutch and Danish factories at Mocha
An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every, with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background
British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai
Depiction of Captain Every's encounter with the Mughal Emperor's granddaughter after his September 1695 capture of the Mughal trader Ganj-i-Sawai
Downman (1685)
Lens (1700)
National Geographic (1917)
Rees (1820)
Laurie (1842)
HEIC Merchant's mark on a Blue Scinde Dawk postage stamp (1852)
The East offering its riches to Britannia - Roma Spiridone, 1778 - BL Foster 245
Engraving of East India House, Leadenhall Street (1766)

The company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland India, with official sanction from both Britain and the Mughal Empire, and requested that the Crown launch a diplomatic mission.

After a year of resistance the EIC surrendered in 1690, and the company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's camp to plead for a pardon.

The first of the Anglo-Indian Wars occurred in 1686 when the company conducted naval operations against Shaista Khan, the governor of Mughal Bengal.

Emperor Akbar's depicted with a falcon in the 17th-century

Din-i Ilahi

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Emperor Akbar's depicted with a falcon in the 17th-century
Abu'l-Fazl, one of the disciples of Din-i-Ilahi, presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature

The Dīn-i-Ilāhī, known during its time as Tawḥīd-i-Ilāhī ("Divine Monotheism", ) or Divine Faith, was a new syncretic religion or spiritual leadership program propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582, intending to merge some of the elements and Create a new religion of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects.

This Conversion of Akbar to Dīn-i Ilāhī angered various Muslims, among them the Qadi of Bengal Subah and Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, responded by declaring it to be blasphemy to Islam.

However, the movement was suppressed by penalty and force after his death and was totally eradicated by Aurangzeb which made it never numbered more than 18 adherents.