The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
Shah Alam II on horseback
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Maratha darbar or court.
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
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Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Arms of Maratha
The remnants of the empire in 1751
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Maratha Empire in 1805
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
Maratha Princely States in 1823
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (c. 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb and by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb

The Marathas were responsible for weakening the Mughal control over the Indian subcontinent.

- Maratha Empire

This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent.

- Mughal Empire

To nullify the alliance between his rebel son, Akbar, and the Marathas, Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb headed south in 1681.

- Maratha Empire

During the reign of Muhammad Shah (reigned 1719–1748), the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands.

- Mughal Empire

Immediately after Bahadur Shah occupied the throne, the Maratha Empire – which Aurangzeb had held at bay, inflicting high human and monetary costs even on his own empire – consolidated and launched effective invasions of Mughal territory, seizing power from the weak emperor.

- Aurangzeb
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

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Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India

Deccan Plateau

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Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India
The Deccan Plateau is a major part of South India (see inset for north and south Deccan Plateau)
Hogenakal Falls, Tamil Nadu
Tiruvannamalai hill, often regarded as the southern tip of the Deccan plateau, the city of Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu itself considered the gateway to the plateau
Near Hampi, Karnataka
Rock formations at Hyderabad, Telangana Hills of granite boulders are a common feature of the landscape on the Deccan plateau.
Deccan Traps in Maharashtra

The Deccan produced some of the major dynasties in Indian history, including the Pallavas, Satavahana, Vakataka, Chalukya, and Rashtrakuta dynasties, also the Western Chalukya Empire, the Kadambas, the Yadava dynasty, the Kakatiya Empire, the Musunuri Nayakas regime, the Vijayanagara and the Maratha empires, as well as the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate, Deccan Sultanates, and the Nizam of Hyderabad.

Mughal interest in the Deccan also rose at this time.

These raids, however, angered the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and by 1680 he moved his capital from Delhi to Aurangabad in Deccan to conquer Maratha-held territories.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)

History of India

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According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)
Dholavira, a city of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs.
Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal.
Sinauli "chariot", photograph of the Archaeological Survey of India.
An early 19th century manuscript in the Devanagari script of the Rigveda, originally transmitted orally with fidelity
Late Vedic era map showing the boundaries of Āryāvarta with Janapadas in northern India, beginning of Iron Age kingdoms in India – Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
City of Kushinagar in the 5th century BCE according to a 1st-century BCE frieze in Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern Gate.
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.
The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful and vast kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the Indo-Gangetic plains.
The Mauryan carved door of Lomas Rishi, one of the Barabar Caves, c. 250 BCE.
Silk Road and Spice trade, ancient trade routes that linked India with the Old World; carried goods and ideas between the ancient civilisations of the Old World and India. The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue.
Copper Plate Seal of Kamarupa Kings at Madan Kamdev ruins.
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Kadamba shikara (tower) with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top, Doddagaddavalli.
Coin of Emperor Harsha, c. 606–647 CE.
Rohtasgarh Fort
Excavated ruins of Nalanda, a centre of Buddhist learning from 450 to 1193 CE.
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola, c. 1030 CE.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its zenith under the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
The Dasam Granth (above) was composed by Sikh Guru Gobind Singh.
18th century political formation in India.
The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499).
Literacy in India grew very slowly until independence in 1947. An acceleration in the rate of literacy growth occurred in the 1991–2001 period.
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600 - 1900 BCE
Mehrgarh site, in Beluchistan, Pakistan
Mohenjo-daro, one of the largest Indus cities. View of the site's Great Bath, showing the surrounding urban layout.
Three stamp seals and their impressions bearing Indus script characters alongside animals: "unicorn" (left), bull (center), and elephant (right); Guimet Museum

The early modern period began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent, signalling the proto-industrialization, becoming the biggest global economy and manufacturing power, with a nominal GDP that valued a quarter of world GDP, superior than the combination of Europe's GDP.

The Mughals suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Marathas, Rajputs, Sikhs, Mysoreans, Nizams, and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent.

The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb ((r.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.

Agra

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City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.
The Town and Fort of Agra, an engraving.
Map of the city, c. 1914
Agra, Main Street, c. 1858
The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The sweet dish petha, which is a symbol of Mughal legacy.
Agra Cantt Railway Station
Railway Map of Agra (the line to Jaipur has meanwhile been converted to broad gauge)
Agra Cantt. Railway Station
Inner Ring Road link Yamuna Expressway to Lucknow expessway, Fatehabad Road, Shamshabad Road, NH-3, NH-11 Agra
Agra University
St John College
St Peter's College
Agra College
The most common front view of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the Yamuna River (northern view)
Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal from Agra fort
The Jahangiri Mahal, the largest residence in the complex
Musamman Burj, an octagonal Tower which was the residence of Shah Jahan's favourite empress, Mumtaz Maḥal
The Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque
Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra's notable historical period began during Sikandar Lodi's reign, but the golden age of the city began with the Mughals.

With the decline of the Mughal empire in the late 18th century, the city fell successively first to Marathas and later to the East India Company.

Agra was the foremost city of the subcontinent and the capital of the Mughal Empire until 1658, when Aurangzeb shifted the entire court to Delhi.

Lahore

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Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
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Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Minar-e-Pakistan
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
WAPDA House
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century and served as its capital city for many years.

Shah Jahan's son, and last of the great Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, further contributed to the development of Lahore.

Durrani rule was interrupted when Lahore was briefly captured by Marathas in 1758 during their campaigns against the Afghans, under Raghunathrao, who drove out the Afghans, while a combined Sikh-Maratha defeated an Afghan assault in the 1759 Battle of Lahore.

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.

Mughal emperors

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Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Akbar Shah II and his four sons

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

During the reign of Aurangzeb ((r.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands.

A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate

Red Fort

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Historic fort in Old Delhi, Delhi in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

Historic fort in Old Delhi, Delhi in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, c. 1630
The walls of Red Fort (in the background) as seen from the top of Jama Masjid's tower
Every year on India's Independence Day, the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the fort's main gate and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts. Pictured is Nehru on 15 August 1947.
View of the Red Fort from the river (by Ghulam Ali Khan, between c. 1852–1854
Inner walls and ceiling of the Diwan-e-Khas
Barrel vault structure located past the Lahore Gate, acts as a market that was built to satisfy the needs of higher ranked Mughal women, who resided in the fort
Map of Red Fort showing major structures
The Delhi Gate, which is almost identical in appearance to the Lahori Gate
Naubat Khana and the courtyard before its demolition by the British, in an 1858 photograph
Naubat Khana inside Red Fort today
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Diwan-i-Khas in the mid-nineteenth century
Hammam of Red Fort interior in mid-nineteenth century
Moti Masjid in Red Fort Delhi
Red Zafar Mahal and white Sawan/Bhadon pavilion behind it in the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

Shah Jahan's successor, Aurangzeb, added the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) to the emperor's private quarters, constructing barbicans in front of the two main gates to make the entrance to the palace more circuitous.

The internal weakness of the Mughal Empire made the Mughals only titular rulers of Delhi, and a 1752 treaty made the Marathas protectors of the throne at Delhi.

Two days later, after taking tribute from the Mughals, removed their armies from the fort and the Jats took away the throne of the Mughals, called the pride of the Mughals, and the doors of the Red Fort as a memorial, and this throne is today enhancing the beauty of the palaces of Deeg.

Chohan Rajputs, Delhi (1868)

Rajput

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Large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

Large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

Chohan Rajputs, Delhi (1868)
Rajputs of Central India
During their centuries-long rule, the Rajputs constructed several palaces. Shown here is the Junagarh Fort in Bikaner, Rajasthan, which was built by the Rathore Rajput rulers
A royal Rajput procession, depicted on a mural at the Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur
Karni Mata, Hindu Goddess primarily worshipped by Rajputs
The Rajput bride, illustration in The Oriental Annual, or Scenes of India (1835)
Rajputs of Udaipur playing the game of Puchesee.
An 18th-century Rajput painting by the artist Nihâl Chand.

A major factor behind this development was the consolidation of the Mughal Empire, whose rulers had great interest in genealogy.

Akbar's diplomatic policy regarding the Rajputs was later damaged by the intolerant rules introduced by his great-grandson Aurangzeb.

In the 18th century, with decline of the Mughal empire, the Maratha Empire(or confederacy) started extracting tribute from major Rajput states such as Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur.