The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Shah Alam II on horseback
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
The remnants of the empire in 1751
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url= |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url= |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url='/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url='/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (c. 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb and by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb

This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent.

- Mughal Empire

Outside of Europe, major examples of economic phenomena classified as proto-industrialisation by historians were in Mughal India and Song China.

- Proto-industrialization

During the 17th–18th centuries, under the auspices of Shaista Khan, the comparatively liberal uncle of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb as the Subehdar of Bengal, sustained growth was being experienced in manufacturing industries, exceeding China.

- Proto-industrialization

Under his reign,India contributed 25% to World GDP, surpassing Qing China, making it the World largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe, and its largest and wealthiest subdivision, the Bengal Subah, signaled proto-industrialization.

- Aurangzeb

Mughal India's economy has been described as a form of proto-industrialization, like that of 18th-century Western Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution.

- Mughal Empire
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

1 related topic with Alpha


Bengal Subah

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Map of Bengal Subah
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh (c. 1665)
The Mughal absorption of Bengal initially progressed during the reigns of the first two emperors Babur and Humayun
Akbar developed the modern Bengali calendar
Dhaka, the capital of Bengal, was named Jahangir Nagar in honor of the fourth Mughal monarch Jahangir
Robert Clive meets Mir Jafar at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
Mobile artillery battries, loyal to the Nawab of Bengal.
Bengali curved roofs were copied by Mughal architects in other parts of the empire, such as in the Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore
Nimtoli Deuri, named after the neem tree, is now a property of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, situated in Dhaka, Bangladesh is now a Heritage Museum.
A riverside mosque in Mughal Dhaka
The Armenian church and cemetery in Dhaka
Maddison's estimates of global GDP, China and India being the most powerful until the 18th century.
A 3D reconstruction of the Bara Katra in modern-day Dhaka
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century
Munim Khan (seated, right), the first Viceroy of Mughal Bengal (1574–1575)
Man Singh I, the Rajput Viceroy of Bengal (1594–1606)
Shaista Khan, Viceroy (1664–1688)
Viceroy Muhammad Azam Shah (1678–1679), later Mughal Emperor
Viceroy Azim-us-Shan (1697–1712), later Mughal Emperor
Daud Khan receives a robe from Munim Khan
Bibi Mariam Cannon
Jahan Kosha Cannon
Battle of Chittagong in 1666 between the Mughals and Arakanese
Jamdani muslin is a legacy of Mughal Bengal
Murshidabad-style painting of a woman playing the sitar
Scroll painting of a Ghazi riding a Bengal tiger

The Bengal Subah (সুবাহ বাংলা; ), also referred to as Mughal Bengal (মোগল বাংলা), was the largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire (and later an independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal) encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odissa between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Bengal was the wealthiest region in the Indian subcontinent, due to their thriving merchants, Seth's, Bankers and traders and its proto-industrial economy showed signs of driving an Industrial revolution.

During the struggle for succession with his brothers Prince Aurangazeb, Prince Dara Shikoh and Prince Murad Baksh, Prince Shuja proclaimed himself as the Mughal Emperor in Bengal.