A report on Aurangzeb and Mumtaz Mahal

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
17th or 18th-century portrait
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
Mumtaz Mahal with an attendant.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Taj Mahal is the final resting place of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Tomb of Mumtaz Mahal in the Taj Mahal, alongside her husband Shah Jahan
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Mumtaz and her husband had 14 children, including Jahanara Begum (Shah Jahan's favorite daughter), and the Crown prince Dara Shikoh, the heir-apparent, anointed by his father, who temporarily succeeded him until deposed by Mumtaz Mahal's sixth child, Aurangzeb, who ultimately succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor in 1658.

- Mumtaz Mahal

Aurangzeb's mother Mumtaz Mahal was the daughter of the Persian noblemen Asaf Khan, who was the youngest son of vizier Mirza Ghiyas.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

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The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

He commissioned many monuments, including the Red Fort, Shah Jahan Mosque and the Taj Mahal, where his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal is entombed.

This nomination led to a succession crisis among his three sons, after which Shah Jahan's third son Aurangzeb ((r.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.

Agra

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City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.
The Town and Fort of Agra, an engraving.
Map of the city, c. 1914
Agra, Main Street, c. 1858
The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The sweet dish petha, which is a symbol of Mughal legacy.
Agra Cantt Railway Station
Railway Map of Agra (the line to Jaipur has meanwhile been converted to broad gauge)
Agra Cantt. Railway Station
Inner Ring Road link Yamuna Expressway to Lucknow expessway, Fatehabad Road, Shamshabad Road, NH-3, NH-11 Agra
Agra University
St John College
St Peter's College
Agra College
The most common front view of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the Yamuna River (northern view)
Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal from Agra fort
The Jahangiri Mahal, the largest residence in the complex
Musamman Burj, an octagonal Tower which was the residence of Shah Jahan's favourite empress, Mumtaz Maḥal
The Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque
Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra was the foremost city of the subcontinent and the capital of the Mughal Empire until 1658, when Aurangzeb shifted the entire court to Delhi.

Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653.

Taj Mahal

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Islamic ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra.

Islamic ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra.

Walkways beside reflecting pool
The western building, a mosque, faces the tomb.
Protective wartime scaffolding in 1942
Visitors at Taj Mahal
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the first European writers about the Taj Mahal
Eastern view in the morning
Taj Mahal in cloudy weather and its minaret under restoration
Western view at sunset
Taj Mahal through the fog
A panoramic view looking 360 degrees around the Taj Mahal in 2005

1628 – 1658)) to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal; it also houses the tomb of Shah Jahan himself.

Soon after the Taj Mahal's completion, Shah Jahan was deposed by his son Aurangzeb and put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort.

Agra Fort

Agra Fort

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Historical fort in the city of Agra in India.

Historical fort in the city of Agra in India.

Agra Fort
Agra Fort captured by Hemu before the Battle of Delhi (1556).
Samuel Bourne, "The Fort. Delhi Gate. Agra," 1863–1869, photograph mounted on cardboard sheet, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Diwan-i-Aam, Hall of Public Audience
Scene of the gunpowder explosion at Agra Fort, 29 November 1871
Plan of the Red Fort, Agra from Murray's Handbooks for Travellers 1911
Jahangir's Hauz, 1916-18
Plan of Agra Fort on display at the fort, 2012
Exterior of Diwan-i-Am or Hall of Public Audience
Interior of Diwan I Am (Hall of Public Audience)
Persian Calligraphy in Agra Fort
Agra Fort Diwan I Am (Hall of Public Audience)
Amar Singh Gate, Agra
Jahangir Palace
Diwan-i-Khas
Delhi gate, by Seeta Ram, 1814–15
Agra Fort insides
Decorated column
Decorations on the ceiling
Weeks Edwin Gate of the Fortress at Agra India
Inside the Fort's extensive compound
Rampart of Agra Fort
Bathtub of Jahangir
Taj Mahal and Yamuna river
Musamman Burj inside
Anguri Bagh, the garden in the courtyard
Agra Fort: Shish Mahal
Agra Fort: Hon'ble John Russell Colvin's Tomb.
Persian calligraphy in Agra Fort

Shah Jahan built the beautiful Taj Mahal in the memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Shivaji came to Agra in 1666 as per the "Treaty of Purandar (1665)" entered into with Jai Singh I to meet Aurangzeb in the Diwan-i-Khas. In the audience, he was deliberately placed behind men of lower rank. Insulted, he stormed out of the imperial audience and was confined to Jai Singh's quarters on 12 May 1666.

Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh

Dara Shikoh

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The eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

The eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh
18th-century portrait of Dara Shikoh
Dara's brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years, ca 1637
Young Dara Shikoh (Left) and Mian Mir (Right)
The marriage of Dara Shikoh and Nadira Begum, 1875–90
Wedding procession of Dara Shikoh, with Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb behind him. Royal Collection Trust, London.
Dara Shikoh with his army
Humayun's Tomb, where the remains of Dara Shikoh were interred in an unidentified grave.
A page from the Majma-ul-Bahrain, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta.
Dara Shikoh (with Mian Mir and Mullah Shah Badakhshi), ca. 1635
A painting from the Persian translation of Yoga Vasistha manuscript, 1602
A Prince in Iranian Costume by Muhammad Khan. Dara Shikoh Album, Agra, 1633–34.
Shah Jahan Receiving Dara Shikoh

In the war of succession which ensued after Shah Jahan's illness in 1657, Dara was defeated by his younger brother Prince Muhiuddin (later, the Emperor Aurangzeb).

He was the first son and third child of Prince Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram and his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan hunting wild Asiatic lions in Burhanpur (July 1630)

Burhanpur

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City in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

City in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan hunting wild Asiatic lions in Burhanpur (July 1630)
Royal bath or hammam Shahi qila Burhanpur
Dargah -e-Hakimi garden

It was specifically built for Shah Jahan's wife, Mumtaz Mahal so that she could enjoy a luxurious bath.

Arround 1670 Daud Khan was the Subhadar (Governor) of Khandesh provinence, under the rule of Aurangzeb.

An 18th-century portrait of Mirza Ghiyas Beg. Color and gold over gold-sprinkled black ground on paper.

Mirza Ghiyas Beg

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Important Persian official in the Mughal empire, whose children served as wives, mothers, and generals of the Mughal emperors.

Important Persian official in the Mughal empire, whose children served as wives, mothers, and generals of the Mughal emperors.

An 18th-century portrait of Mirza Ghiyas Beg. Color and gold over gold-sprinkled black ground on paper.
Emperor Jahangir and Mirza Ghiyas Beg
Mirza Ghiyas Beg's tomb in Agra

Ghiyas was also the grandfather of Mumtaz Mahal (originally named Arjumand Bano, daughter of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan), the wife of the emperor Shah Jahan, responsible for the building of the Taj Mahal.

Shah Jahan married Abdul Hasan's daughter Arjumand Banu Begum, Mumtāz Mahal, who was the mother of his four sons, including his successor Aurangzeb.

Shaista Khan

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General and the subahdar of Mughal Bengal.

General and the subahdar of Mughal Bengal.

Shivaji (right) attacks Shaista Khan, as he tries to flee
Construction of Saat Masjid is credited to Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan in later days

A maternal uncle to the emperor Aurangzeb, he acted as a key figure during his reign.

He also had familial connections with the imperial dynasty, having been a paternal nephew of the empress Nur Jahan and the brother of the empress Mumtaz Mahal.