A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Bengal Subah

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The largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire (and later an independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal) encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odissa between the 16th and 18th centuries.

The largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire (and later an independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal) encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odissa between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Map of Bengal Subah
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh (c. 1665)
The Mughal absorption of Bengal initially progressed during the reigns of the first two emperors Babur and Humayun
Akbar developed the modern Bengali calendar
Dhaka, the capital of Bengal, was named Jahangir Nagar in honor of the fourth Mughal monarch Jahangir
Robert Clive meets Mir Jafar at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
Mobile artillery battries, loyal to the Nawab of Bengal.
Bengali curved roofs were copied by Mughal architects in other parts of the empire, such as in the Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore
Nimtoli Deuri, named after the neem tree, is now a property of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, situated in Dhaka, Bangladesh is now a Heritage Museum.
A riverside mosque in Mughal Dhaka
The Armenian church and cemetery in Dhaka
Maddison's estimates of global GDP, China and India being the most powerful until the 18th century.
A 3D reconstruction of the Bara Katra in modern-day Dhaka
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century
Munim Khan (seated, right), the first Viceroy of Mughal Bengal (1574–1575)
Man Singh I, the Rajput Viceroy of Bengal (1594–1606)
Shaista Khan, Viceroy (1664–1688)
Viceroy Muhammad Azam Shah (1678–1679), later Mughal Emperor
Viceroy Azim-us-Shan (1697–1712), later Mughal Emperor
Daud Khan receives a robe from Munim Khan
Bibi Mariam Cannon
Jahan Kosha Cannon
Battle of Chittagong in 1666 between the Mughals and Arakanese
Jamdani muslin is a legacy of Mughal Bengal
Murshidabad-style painting of a woman playing the sitar
Scroll painting of a Ghazi riding a Bengal tiger

During the struggle for succession with his brothers Prince Aurangazeb, Prince Dara Shikoh and Prince Murad Baksh, Prince Shuja proclaimed himself as the Mughal Emperor in Bengal.

Portrait of Azam Shah c. 1670

Muhammad Azam Shah

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Briefly the Mughal emperor ((r.

Briefly the Mughal emperor ((r.

Portrait of Azam Shah c. 1670
Muhammad Azam with his son, Prince Bidar Bakht
Crown Prince Azam, stands before his father, Emperor Aurangzeb

He was the third son of the sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and his chief consort Dilras Banu Begum.

A painting of Sambhaji, late 17th century

Sambhaji

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The second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, ruling from 1681 to 1689.

The second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, ruling from 1681 to 1689.

A painting of Sambhaji, late 17th century
Watan Patra (grant document), by Chh. Sambhaji
228x228px
347x347px

He and his father Shivaji attended the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's court at Agra on 12 May 1666.

Ahmednagar

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City located in the Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad.

City located in the Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad.

Salabat Khan's tomb.
Ahmednagar fort entrance.
Samadhi of Meher Baba

Aurangzeb, the last Mughal emperor, who spent the latter years of his reign, 1681–1707, in the Deccan, died in Ahmednagar and is buried at Khuldabad, near Aurangabad in 1707, with a small monument marking the site.

Punjab

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Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Chandigarh
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala
Bahu Fort, Jammu

1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir

Shaista Khan

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General and the subahdar of Mughal Bengal.

General and the subahdar of Mughal Bengal.

Shivaji (right) attacks Shaista Khan, as he tries to flee
Construction of Saat Masjid is credited to Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan in later days

A maternal uncle to the emperor Aurangzeb, he acted as a key figure during his reign.

The Mughal armies of Aurangzeb and Shah Shuja confront each other

Battle of Khajwa

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The Mughal armies of Aurangzeb and Shah Shuja confront each other

The Battle of Khajuha was a battle fought on January 5, 1659, between the newly crowned Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and Shah Shuja who also declared himself Mughal Emperor in Bengal.

Modern ruins of the Golconda Fort, which was rebuilt and fortified by Aurangzeb after its conquest in the year 1687

Siege of Golconda

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Modern ruins of the Golconda Fort, which was rebuilt and fortified by Aurangzeb after its conquest in the year 1687
Aurangzeb during the siege of Golconda, 1687 (Hyderabad, India)

The siege of Golconda occurred in January 1687, when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb led his forces to besiege the Qutb Shahi dynasty at Golconda Fort, home of the Kollur Mine.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

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Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.
Blasphemy laws worldwide:
Subnational restrictions
Fines and restrictions
Prison sentences
Death sentences

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (r.

Gujarat under Mughal Empire

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In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III.

In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III.

Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as subahdars.