A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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A mid 17th century portrait of Guru Tegh Bahadur painted by Ahsan

Guru Tegh Bahadur

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The ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and the leader of Sikhs from 1665 until his beheading in 1675.

The ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and the leader of Sikhs from 1665 until his beheading in 1675.

A mid 17th century portrait of Guru Tegh Bahadur painted by Ahsan
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Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on the orders of Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, in Delhi, India.

Qutb Shahi dynasty

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The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golconda Sultanate in northern Deccan Plateau (Telangana) from 1512 AD to 1687 AD, a Persianate Shia Islamic dynasty, the Qutb Shahis were descendants of Qara Yusuf from Qara Qoyunlu of Hamadan province of Persia, originally a Turkoman Muslim tribe.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golconda Sultanate in northern Deccan Plateau (Telangana) from 1512 AD to 1687 AD, a Persianate Shia Islamic dynasty, the Qutb Shahis were descendants of Qara Yusuf from Qara Qoyunlu of Hamadan province of Persia, originally a Turkoman Muslim tribe.

Golconda in 1733 CE.
Tomb of Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah in Hyderabad.
Golkonda Painting, 1650-1670 Opaque watercolor and gold on paper Overall
Music in Golkonda, 1660–1670. Musician plays a form of rubab.
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.

The dynasty came to an end in 1687 during the reign of its seventh Sultan Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb arrested and jailed him for the rest of his life in Daulatabad, absorbed Golconda into the Mughal empire.

Bihar

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State in eastern India.

State in eastern India.

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(Sitting L to R): Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha
Kathak classical dance form, from Bhojpur region
Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat
Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna
NIT Patna main building

With political instability in the Mughal Empire following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Murshid Quli Khan declared Bengal's independence and named himself Nawab of Bengal.

Bijapur district, Karnataka

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District in the state of Karnataka in India.

District in the state of Karnataka in India.

Chand Bibi, the regent of Bijapur (1580-90)
Talukas of Bijapur District
Political map of the Bijapur district

The rule of this dynasty ended in 1686, when Bijapur was conquered by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Zainabadi Mahal

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Zainabadi Mahal (born Hira Bai; died c. undefined 1654 ) was a concubine of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

District Panchayat Bhawan of Dahod

Dahod

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City on the banks of the Dudhimati River in Dahod District in the State of Gujarat, India.

City on the banks of the Dudhimati River in Dahod District in the State of Gujarat, India.

District Panchayat Bhawan of Dahod
GSRTC Bus station, Dahod

Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was born in Dahod in 1618, during the reign of Jahangir.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

Shivaji

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Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
South India at the turn of the 17th century
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
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A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb who then, was the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.

Portrait of Bahadur Shah I, c. 1670

Bahadur Shah I

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The eighth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.

The eighth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.

Portrait of Bahadur Shah I, c. 1670
Prince Mu'azzam in his youth
Emperor Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Bahadur Shah I and his Consort
On his march to Amber, Shah visited the tomb of Salim Chishti.
Kam Bakhsh established his rule in Bijapur.
Bahadur Shah on a Sikh expedition
Moti Masjid, Shah's burial place
alt=Both sides of a silver coin|Silver rupee from Azimabad, 1708
alt=Both sides of an irregularly-round copper coin|Copper paisa from Surat
alt=Both sides of a silver coin|Silver rupee from Shahjahanabad, 1708

In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, and ascend to the throne.

Golconda Fort

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Fortified citadel built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.

Fortified citadel built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.

Panoramic view of the Golconda Fort
Ruins of the Fort
Guide map of Golkonda fort
The Do-Minar, Golconda
The Daria-i-Noor Diamond
The Hope Diamond
The Koh-i-Noor Diamond
The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond
A view of the ruins of the fort
Fort overlooking the city of Hyderabad
Mosque of Ibrahim
The Baradari located at the top of the citadel
View from the Baradari
Design inside the Golconda fort
Pathway in Golconda fort
The Baradari fort
{{center|Golconda Fort seen from a road}}
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{{center|Fort overlooking the city}}
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{{center|Rani Mahal}}
{{center|Taramati Mosque}}
{{center|Golconda Fort inside view}}
{{center|Architecture inside Golconda Fort}}
{{center|Golconda Fort from inside}}
{{center|View of the Golconda Fort}}
{{center|Golconda Fort from outside}}

The fort finally fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

Sikandar Adil Shah

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The last Sultan of Bijapur, who reigned between 1672 and 1686.

The last Sultan of Bijapur, who reigned between 1672 and 1686.

A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

His reign ended when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb annexed the city of Bijapur, putting an end to the Adil Shahi dynasty.