A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Residential High Rises in Pune,India

Pune

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Seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra, with an estimated population of 7.4 million It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times.

Seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra, with an estimated population of 7.4 million It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times.

Residential High Rises in Pune,India
The circular Nandi mandapa at the Pataleshwar cave temple built in the Rashtrakuta era (753-982)
Skyscrapers under construction in Pune South
An equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada. He expanded the Maratha Empire in north India c. 1730.
British Government House, Ganesh Khind, Poona (c. 1875)
National Chemical Laboratory
Vetal Hill Panorama, a prominent hill in Pune. Elevation c. 800 m
Tulshibaug Lane in Pune, a busy shopping hub of Pune
Baner, when it was a recently developed suburb of Pune.
Hadapsar, a recently developed suburb of Pune.
EON IT Park, Kharadi
Kirloskar Group headquarters in Pune
Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune
Force Motors plant in Pune
Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune.
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Deccan college houses the museums of Maratha history and Indian archaeology
Ganpati procession by Jnana Prabodhini school
Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium
Pune Municipal Corporation Building
Khadakwasla reservoir, the main source of water for the city
St. Vincent's High School, Camp, Pune.
Jnana Prabodhini Prashala, Sadashiv Peth, Pune
Savitribai Phule Pune University headquarters. During the British era, the building served as the Monsoon residence for the Governor of the Bombay Presidency.
Pune Railway Station – entrance
An EMU on the Pune–Lonavla suburban line
Deccan Express with Vistadome Coach
Local buses in Pune
Pune Metro during trial Run
A highway leading into Pune
Departure lounge at Pune Airport
B. J. Medical College, Pune was established in 1878 and is associated with the Sassoon Hospital.

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb renamed the city Muhiyabad (the only divergent naming) some time between 1703 and 1705 in memory of his great-grandson Muhi-ul-Milan, who died there.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar

Sikhs

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Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

(Guru Arjan was martyred on suspicion of helping in betrayal of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for opposing their persecution of Kashmiri pandits.) As the Sikh faith grew, the Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule..

Udaipuri Mahal

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Udaipuri Mahal (died July 1707) was a concubine of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Badshahi Mosque

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Mughal-era congregational mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan.

Mughal-era congregational mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan.

Badshahi Mosque stands across the Hazuri Bagh from Lahore Fort.
Badshahi Mosque is renowned for the carved marble and elaborate plasterwork that are used throughout the mosque's interior.
Entrance to the main prayer hall is through arches made of red sandstone city was made an imperial capital by the earlier Emperor, Akbar, who established the nearby Lahore Fort.
The Badshahi Mosque features a monumental gateway that faces the Hazuri Bagh quadrangle and Lahore Fort.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh (white edifice) is a Sikh shrine that was built next to the mosque in 1848.
Badshahi Mosque had fallen into disrepair after the city's Sikh rule
The mosque is heavily used during the Islamic month of Ramadan.
The mosque's interior is embellished with Mughal frescoes and carved marble.
The mosque's domes
The intricately painted entryway
The ceiling of the prayer hall is embellished with elegant floral frescoes and Middle-Eastern style muqarnas.
The mosque features intricate Mughal frescoes.
Badshahi Mosque Gate as viewed from the mosque's courtyard
Silhouette of the mosque's architectural elements
Badshahi Masjid
The mosque's southern view from Fort Street
The interior of the mosque is embellished with intricate floral motifs.
An example of Badshahi Mosque's intricate decoration.
The Tomb of Allama Iqbal is located immediately north of the mosque's monumental gateway
Light fixtures at the mosque
An evening view of the Badshahi Mosque.
The mosque at night
Side view
A view over the mosque's marble domes.
A view of Badshahi Mosque from the Alamgiri Gate.
The mosque's entry gateway connects the mosque to the Hazuri Bagh
Entry gate's design
View from Iqbal Park
alt=Panoramic view of Badshahi Mosque as seen from Food Street Fort Road|Panoramic view of Badshahi Mosque as seen from Food Street Fort Road

The Badshahi Mosque was constructed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb between 1671 and 1673 and was the largest mosque in the world from 1673 to 1986.

Keshavdeva Temple

Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex

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Group of Hindu temples in Mallapura, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Group of Hindu temples in Mallapura, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Keshavdeva Temple
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Entrance of the temple complex
Potra Kund

These temples are built at the location where the Hindu deity Krishna is believed to be born, and is adjacent to the Shahi Eidgah mosque built by Aurangzeb.

Islamic economics

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Islamic economics (الاقتصاد الإسلامي) refers to the knowledge of economics or economic activities and processes in terms of Islamic principles and teachings.

Islamic economics (الاقتصاد الإسلامي) refers to the knowledge of economics or economic activities and processes in terms of Islamic principles and teachings.

1501), Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (d.

Zeb-un-Nisa's palace, Aurangabad 1880s.

Aurangabad

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City in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

City in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Zeb-un-Nisa's palace, Aurangabad 1880s.
Ahilyabai Holkar Chauk, Station Road, Aurangabad
Aerial View of Aurangabad CIDCO
Wali Aurangabadi was a classical Urdu poet.
Idol of Lord Shri Parshvanath at Kachner temple
Bhadkal Gate, part of Gates in Aurangabad
Bibi Ka Maqbara
Naan Qaliya, Aurangabad
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University gate
Himroo Shawl
Bombay High Court Aurangabad Bench, ITC Welcomgroup's The Rama International, Ajanta Ambassador & Cidco Town Center – Aerial view
Kranti Chowk
Chaitya with stupa, Cave IV (4), Aurangabad Caves.
Various sculptors next to an entrance at Aurangabad Caves.
Panchakki, was designed to generate energy via water brought down from a spring on a mountain. It displays the scientific thought process put in medieval Indian architecture.
Salim Ali Lake
Siddharth Garden near bus stand Aurangabad
Aurangabad Airport
Aurangabad Railway Station

In 1636, Aurangzeb, who was then the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan region, annexed the city into the Mughal Empire.

Kashi Vishwanath Temple, c. 1915

Kashi Vishwanath Temple

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Famous Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.

Famous Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.

Kashi Vishwanath Temple, c. 1915
Elevation of the present temple structure
The original holy well—Gyanvapi in between the temple and Gyanvapi Mosque
The renovated temple in 2022
Campus of Kashi Vishwanath Temple

It had been demolished by many Muslim rulers many times, most recently by Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor who constructed the Gyanvapi Mosque on its site.

Kilich Khan

Kilich Khan

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Khawaja Abid Khan Siddiqi (b.

Khawaja Abid Khan Siddiqi (b.

Kilich Khan
Kilich Khan
The ruins of Golconda fort where Khwaja Abid died fighting and also where such diamonds were found that would make his descendants the richest people in the world

17th Century – 1687 d.), or Nawab Khawaja Abid Siddiqi/Khawaja Abid (Qalich Khan - title given by Shah Jahan) better known as Kilich Khan, was a Nawab and military general under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Pakistan

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Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Jinnah had developed a close association with the ulama and upon his death was described by one such alim, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, as the greatest Muslim after Aurangzeb and as someone who desired to unite the Muslims of the world under the banner of Islam.