A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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East India Company

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English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601
fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies
The emperor Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour, watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others
Document with the original vermilion seal of Tokugawa Ieyasu, granting trade privileges in Japan to the East India Company in 1613
French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb
Rear view of the East India Company's Factory at Cossimbazar
Company painting depicting an official of the East India Company, c. 1760
Saltpetre used for gunpowder was one of the major trade goods of the company
The expanded East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton, c. 1800
Addiscombe Seminary, photographed in c.1859, with cadets in the foreground
Ships in Bombay Harbour, c. 1731
was one of the five East Indiamen the Spanish fleet captured in 1780
English, Dutch and Danish factories at Mocha
An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every, with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background
British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai
Depiction of Captain Every's encounter with the Mughal Emperor's granddaughter after his September 1695 capture of the Mughal trader Ganj-i-Sawai
Downman (1685)
Lens (1700)
National Geographic (1917)
Rees (1820)
Laurie (1842)
1600–1707
1707–1801
1801–1874
HEIC Merchant's mark on a Blue Scinde Dawk postage stamp (1852)
The East offering its riches to Britannia - Roma Spiridone, 1778 - BL Foster 245
Engraving of East India House, Leadenhall Street (1766)

After a year of resistance the EIC surrendered in 1690, and the company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's camp to plead for a pardon.

Laterite under the Top soil Layer

Bidar

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City in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in India.

City in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in India.

Laterite under the Top soil Layer
museum inside Bidar fort
The Karnataka tableau depicting Bidriware Handicraft from Bidar passes through the Rajpath during the Republic Day Parade 2011.
Distance from major cities of Karnataka to Bidar
Fort Garden Bidar
Bidar Fort (inside view garden)
Bidar Fort (inside view)
Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib
Madrasa Bidar Bidar
Ashtur Tombs
Papnash Temple

Aurangzeb came to Bidar after his father, Padshah (emperor) Shah Jahan, appointed him the Prince of Deccan.

Sikh Empire

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State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

The foundations of the Sikh Empire can be traced to as early as 1707, the year of Aurangzeb's death and the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

Rakhine State

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State in Myanmar (Burma).

State in Myanmar (Burma).

Silver coin of king Nitichandra, Arakan. Brahmi legend "NITI" in front, Shrivatasa symbol on the reverse. 8th century CE.
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of Rakhine State, 2017
Spatial Illustration of Disenfranchisement of 2020 General Election in Arakan (Rakhine State)
Map of the Rakhine State

It is seen by the Rakhine people as the golden age of their history, as Mrauk U served as a commercially important port and base of power in the Bay of Bengal region and involved in extensive maritime trade with Arabia and Europe.Part of it, along Bengal Subah's Chittagong, was later conquered by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Bibi Ka Maqbara

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Tomb located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Tomb located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

The tomb in the 1880s
Jali work on the mosque
Arches inside the tomb
Close-up of the dome
Designs on the interior of the dome
Floral designs on marble, as seen on the tomb's interior walls
Side view of the mosque in the Mausoleum complex
Minaret of the mosque near the tomb
Aerial view of the tomb.
The tomb at dusk
The tomb in fog
The Cenotaph of Dilras Banu Begum
Floral patterns on marble, in the interiors of the tomb
Restoration of the tomb underway

It was commissioned in 1660 by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife Dilras Banu Begum (posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani) and is considered to be a symbol of Aurangzeb's 'conjugal fidelity'.

Portrait of Nawab Daud Khan, Mughal India, portrayed in Hyderabad, Deccan, India (1756)

Daud Khan Panni

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Daud Khan Panni (?

Daud Khan Panni (?

Portrait of Nawab Daud Khan, Mughal India, portrayed in Hyderabad, Deccan, India (1756)
In 1702, Daud Khan blockaded Madras.

Before he was made Nawab, the Emperor Aurangazeb appointed him as a leading commander of the Mughal Army in 1701, while Zulfikhar Ali Khan was the Nawab.

Thatta

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City in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

City in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

Thatta's Makli Necropolis features several monumental tombs dating from the 14th to 18th centuries.
Thatta's Shah Jahan Mosque features extensive tile work that displays Timurid influences introduced from Central Asia.

As a token of gratitude for the hospitality he had received in the city while still a prince, Shah Jahan bestowed the Shah Jahan Mosque to the city in 1647 as part of the city's rebuilding efforts, although it was not completed until 1659 under the reign of his son Aurangzeb.

Mir Jumla II

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Paugla Pool from the River (1817) by Sir Charles D'Oyly. This bridge was known to be constructed in 1660 AD by Mir Jumla.
Poonamallee mosque

Mir Jumla II (1591 – 30 March 1663) was a prominent subahdar of Bengal under the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Old Delhi

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Area in the UT of Delhi, India.

Area in the UT of Delhi, India.

Old Delhi, Yamuna river bank
Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi.
View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973.
Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan, 1656.
Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi, 1911 map
The City of Delhi Before the Siege - The Illustrated London News Jan 16, 1858
Historic map of Delhi (Shahjahanabad), 1863
Map of Delhi and New Delhi after the First World War. The descriptions are in Czech.
The Lahori Gate of Red Fort from Chandni Chowk.
Lal Mandir
Old Delhi Railway Station built 1903
Historic Karim's at Old Delhi.

Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib, a sikh Gurudwara built to commemorate the martyrdom site of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. It marks the site where the ninth Sikh Guru was beheaded on the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb on 11 November 1675 for rebelling against the throne.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan hunting wild Asiatic lions in Burhanpur (July 1630)

Burhanpur

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City in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

City in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan hunting wild Asiatic lions in Burhanpur (July 1630)
Royal bath or hammam Shahi qila Burhanpur
Dargah -e-Hakimi garden

Arround 1670 Daud Khan was the Subhadar (Governor) of Khandesh provinence, under the rule of Aurangzeb.