A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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c.Early 20th Century Painting Depicting Guru Gobind Singh Passing the Guruship to Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Gobind Singh

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The tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

The tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

c.Early 20th Century Painting Depicting Guru Gobind Singh Passing the Guruship to Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Gobind Singh's birthplace in Patna, Bihar.
From Bhai Rupa showing the Guru at the age of 23.
A Fresco of Guru Gobind Singh and The Panj Piare in Gurdwara Bhai Than Singh built in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan – three of the five Ks
Anandpur Sahib gurdwara, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa
The Dasam Granth is attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It incorporates among other things the warrior-saint mythologies of ancient India.
Guru Gobind Singh with his horse
GGS Marg Map
Gurudwara Parivar Vichora Sahib, Majri, Punjab where Guru's younger sahibzaade got separated from him.
Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded, built over the place where Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in 1708, the inner chamber is still called Angitha Sahib.

When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine, becoming the tenth and final human Sikh Guru.

Proto-industrialization

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Regional development, alongside commercial agriculture, of rural handicraft production for external markets.

Regional development, alongside commercial agriculture, of rural handicraft production for external markets.

During the 17th–18th centuries, under the auspices of Shaista Khan, the comparatively liberal uncle of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb as the Subehdar of Bengal, sustained growth was being experienced in manufacturing industries, exceeding China.

Exterior view of the Pearl Mosque (Moti Masjid) of the Red Fort

Moti Masjid (Red Fort)

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White marble mosque inside the Red Fort complex in Delhi, India.

White marble mosque inside the Red Fort complex in Delhi, India.

Exterior view of the Pearl Mosque (Moti Masjid) of the Red Fort
Bronze main door with floral decoration
Interior view today
Ornaments
Ornaments
Samuel Bourne, "The Motee Musjid. Delhi. 1351," 1863-1869, photograph mounted on cardboard sheet, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC

Located to the west of the Hammam and close to the Diwan-i-Khas, it was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb from 1659-1660.

Chohan Rajputs, Delhi (1868)

Rajput

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Large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

Large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

Chohan Rajputs, Delhi (1868)
Rajputs of Central India
During their centuries-long rule, the Rajputs constructed several palaces. Shown here is the Junagarh Fort in Bikaner, Rajasthan, which was built by the Rathore Rajput rulers
A royal Rajput procession, depicted on a mural at the Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur
Karni Mata, Hindu Goddess primarily worshipped by Rajputs
The Rajput bride, illustration in The Oriental Annual, or Scenes of India (1835)
Rajputs of Udaipur playing the game of Puchesee.
An 18th-century Rajput painting by the artist Nihâl Chand.

Akbar's diplomatic policy regarding the Rajputs was later damaged by the intolerant rules introduced by his great-grandson Aurangzeb.

Ganj-i-Sawai

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Armed Ghanjah dhow (trading ship) belonging to the Mughals.

Armed Ghanjah dhow (trading ship) belonging to the Mughals.

During Aurangzeb's reign, it was captured on 7 September 1695 by the English pirate Henry Every en route from present-day Mocha, Yemen to Surat, India.

A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate

Red Fort

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Historic fort in Old Delhi, Delhi in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

Historic fort in Old Delhi, Delhi in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, c. 1630
The walls of Red Fort (in the background) as seen from the top of Jama Masjid's tower
Every year on India's Independence Day, the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the fort's main gate and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts. Pictured is Nehru on 15 August 1947.
View of the Red Fort from the river (by Ghulam Ali Khan, between c. 1852–1854
Inner walls and ceiling of the Diwan-e-Khas
Barrel vault structure located past the Lahore Gate, acts as a market that was built to satisfy the needs of higher ranked Mughal women, who resided in the fort
Map of Red Fort showing major structures
The Delhi Gate, which is almost identical in appearance to the Lahori Gate
Naubat Khana and the courtyard before its demolition by the British, in an 1858 photograph
Naubat Khana inside Red Fort today
320x320px
320x320px
Diwan-i-Khas in the mid-nineteenth century
Hammam of Red Fort interior in mid-nineteenth century
Moti Masjid in Red Fort Delhi
Red Zafar Mahal and white Sawan/Bhadon pavilion behind it in the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

Shah Jahan's successor, Aurangzeb, added the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) to the emperor's private quarters, constructing barbicans in front of the two main gates to make the entrance to the palace more circuitous.

Jung Khalsa warriors playing Gatka and Shastar Vidya

Khalsa

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Khalsa (ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ,, ) refers to both a community that considers Sikhism as its faith, as well as a special group of initiated Sikhs.

Khalsa (ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ,, ) refers to both a community that considers Sikhism as its faith, as well as a special group of initiated Sikhs.

Jung Khalsa warriors playing Gatka and Shastar Vidya
Jung Khalsa warriors playing Gatka and Shastar Vidya
19th century Akali Sikh warriors.
Nishan Sahib in blue, at Akali Phoola Singh di Burj in Amritsar
A 1999 stamp dedicated to the 300th anniversary of Khalsa
Keshgarh Sahib Gurudwara at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa
A fresco of Guru Gobind Singh and the Panj Piare.
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan – three of the five Ks
Akalis at the Holy Tank
Khalsa principles of Deg to cook food (langar) in huge amount
A group of Khalsa Sikhs
Guru Nanak dev ji along with his devotees from different backgrounds
An inscription naming the five members of the Khalsa Panth, at Takht Keshgarh Sahib, the birthplace of Khalsa on Baisakh 1, 1756 Vikram Samvat.
The creation of the Khalsa; initiated by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru.

Guru Gobind Singh started the Khalsa tradition after his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded during the Islamic sharia rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Balkh

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Town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

Town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

Map showing Balkh (here indicated as Bactres), the capital of Bactria during the Hellenistic Age
Trapusa and Bahalika, two merchants from Balkh, offering food to the Buddha. Modern Burmese depiction.
A silver dirham of the Umayyad Caliphate, minted at Balkh al-Baida in AH 111 (=729/30 AD).
The Green Mosque of Balkh
A street in Balkh with several horse carts, c. 1970s
Remains of a Hellenistic capital found in Balkh
Ambassador from Balkh (白題國 Baitiguo) to the Tang dynasty, Wanghuitu (王會圖), circa 650 CE.

Balkh was the government seat of Aurangzeb in his youth.

Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Western Middle East, Western and Nile river region of Egypt, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Europe, India, China and Russia. An estimated third of all Muslims living in Muslim-majority countries worldwide follow Hanafi law.

Hanafi

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One of the four traditional major Sunni schools (maddhab) of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).

One of the four traditional major Sunni schools (maddhab) of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).

Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Western Middle East, Western and Nile river region of Egypt, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Europe, India, China and Russia. An estimated third of all Muslims living in Muslim-majority countries worldwide follow Hanafi law.

Fatawa 'Alamgiri: Fatawa 'Alamgiri is an Islamic edict book first implemented as state law in India during the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Later, the British Raj also implemented this law in an effort to better control their Indian Muslim subjects.

Painting of Durgadas Rathore by A.H. Müller in Mehrangarh Fort museum

Durgadas Rathore

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The Rathore Rajput General of Kingdom of Marwar.

The Rathore Rajput General of Kingdom of Marwar.

Painting of Durgadas Rathore by A.H. Müller in Mehrangarh Fort museum
Durgadas Rathore and Ajit Singh
Durgadas Rathore's painting by H.B. Sarda
Canopy of Durgadas at Chakratirth, Ujjain
Durgadas Rathore dak ticket (stamps) of Rs. 0.60 also released on 16 August 1988

In doing so he had to defy Aurangzeb, a Mughal emperor.