A report on Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

- Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

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Jhujhar Singh on Horseback, ca. 1720–30

Jhujhar Singh

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Raja of the Orchha region in India during the 17th century.

Raja of the Orchha region in India during the 17th century.

Jhujhar Singh on Horseback, ca. 1720–30

The Mughal army, which was led by the teenager Aurangzeb, conquered his kingdom in 1635 and forced Singh to retreat to Chauragarh.

Bhadkal Gate

Gates in Aurangabad

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The Gates of Aurangabad distinguish it from several other medieval cities in India.

The Gates of Aurangabad distinguish it from several other medieval cities in India.

Bhadkal Gate
Bhadkal Gate
Delhi Gate
Rangeen Gate
Roshan Gate
Barapulla Gate
Paithan Gate
Mecca Gate
Kaala Gate,
Jaffar Gate
Naubat Gate
Mahmud Gate
Makai Gate

During Khan Jahan's second viceroyalty, Aurangzeb built a wall around the city in 1682, to protect it from the incursions of the Marathas; and in 1696 he erected a similar fortified wall for Begumpura.

Assam

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State in northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

State in northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

Map of Eastern Bengal and Assam during 1907–1909
A map of the British Indian Empire in 1909 during the partition of Bengal (1905–1911), showing British India in two shades of pink (coral and pale) and the princely states in yellow. The Assam Province (initially as the Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam) can be seen towards the north-eastern side of India.
Showing a historical incident at Kanaklata Udyan, Tezpur
Blooming of Kopou Orchid marks the beginning of the festive season of Bihu in Assam.
People gathered at Kamakhya Temple for the Ambubachi Mela
Kamakhya Temple
Basistha Temple in Guwahati.
7th–8th century specimen of Assamese (Kamarupi) literature
Brahmaputra valley region of Assam
1. Tinskia 2. Dibrugarh 3. Dhemaji 4. Charaideo 5. Sivasagar 6.Lakhimpur 7. Majuli 8. Jorhat 9. Biswanath 10. Golaghat 11. Karbi Anglong 12. Sonitpur 13. Nagaon 14. Hojai 15. Karbi Anglong West 16. Dima Hasao 17. Cachar 18. Hailakandi 19. Karimganj 20. Morigaon 21. Udalguri 22. Darrang 23. Kamrup Metro 24. Baksa 25. Nalbari 26. Kamrup 27. Barpeta 28. Chirang 29. Bongaigaon 30. Goalpara 31. Kokrajhar 32. Dhubri 33. South Salmara Mankachar 34. Bajali
Bodoland district map
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The image represent's Dimaraji proposed state map
Barak Valley
Per capita income of Assam since 1950
A paddy field in Assam
A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas
Assamese women busy planting paddy seedlings in their agricultural field in Pahukata village in the Nagaon district of Assam
A group of 'Husori' for the occasion of Assamese Bohag Bihu in their traditional attire.
Dakhinpat Satra of Majuli
Girl in traditional Mekhela chador dress with a Dhol wrapped with Gamosa
A decorative Assamese Jaapi laid over a Gamosa
A Bihu dancer blowing a pepa (horn)
A beautifully adorned Jaapi
Mising girls dancing during Ali Ai Ligang (Spring Festival)
Actors of Abinaswar Gosthi performs the play "Surjya Mandirot Surjyasta" directed by Dipok Borah
Assamese Thali
An ethnic preparation of Ghost chili chicken curry of Assam
Lakshminath Bezbaroa, one of the foremost figures of Assamese literature.
Imaginary portrait of Srimanta Sankardeva by Bishnu Prasad Rabha
School girls in the classroom, Lakhiganj High School, Assam
Cotton University, Guwahati
Academic complex of IIT Guwahati
National Institute of Technology, Silchar
Jorhat Engineering College of Assam Science and Technology University
Sattriya Dance
Bodo dance Bagurumba
Jhumair dance in Tea garden
Nagara
Bhupen Hazarika
Assamese youth performing Bihu Dance
Statue of Bishnu Prasad Rabha, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala and Phani Sarma at District Library, Guwahati.
Lil Bahadur Chettri
Citra Bhagavata illustration
A folio from the Hastividyarnava manuscript
<center>A page of manuscript painting from Assam; The medieval painters used locally manufactured painting materials such as the colours of hangool and haital and papers manufactured from aloewood bark</center>
Bell metal made sorai and sophura are important parts of culture
Assam Kahor (Bell metal) Kahi

The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c.

1830 edition of Voyages dans les États du Grand Mogol

François Bernier

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French physician and traveller.

French physician and traveller.

1830 edition of Voyages dans les États du Grand Mogol
Engraving from Voyage de François Bernier, Paul Maret, 1710.

Attached at first and for a short while to the retinue of Dara Shikoh—the history of whose downfall he was to record—he was installed as a medical doctor at the court of Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughal emperors.

Agra Fort

Agra Fort

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Historical fort in the city of Agra in India.

Historical fort in the city of Agra in India.

Agra Fort
Agra Fort captured by Hemu before the Battle of Delhi (1556).
Samuel Bourne, "The Fort. Delhi Gate. Agra," 1863–1869, photograph mounted on cardboard sheet, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Diwan-i-Aam, Hall of Public Audience
Scene of the gunpowder explosion at Agra Fort, 29 November 1871
Plan of the Red Fort, Agra from Murray's Handbooks for Travellers 1911
Jahangir's Hauz, 1916-18
Plan of Agra Fort on display at the fort, 2012
Exterior of Diwan-i-Am or Hall of Public Audience
Interior of Diwan I Am (Hall of Public Audience)
Persian Calligraphy in Agra Fort
Agra Fort Diwan I Am (Hall of Public Audience)
Amar Singh Gate, Agra
Jahangir Palace
Diwan-i-Khas
Delhi gate, by Seeta Ram, 1814–15
Agra Fort insides
Decorated column
Decorations on the ceiling
Weeks Edwin Gate of the Fortress at Agra India
Inside the Fort's extensive compound
Rampart of Agra Fort
Bathtub of Jahangir
Taj Mahal and Yamuna river
Musamman Burj inside
Anguri Bagh, the garden in the courtyard
Agra Fort: Shish Mahal
Agra Fort: Hon'ble John Russell Colvin's Tomb.
Persian calligraphy in Agra Fort

Shivaji came to Agra in 1666 as per the "Treaty of Purandar (1665)" entered into with Jai Singh I to meet Aurangzeb in the Diwan-i-Khas. In the audience, he was deliberately placed behind men of lower rank. Insulted, he stormed out of the imperial audience and was confined to Jai Singh's quarters on 12 May 1666.

Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the right: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the left: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12

Mughal dynasty

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The Mughal dynasty (Dudmân-e Mughal) comprised the members of the imperial House of Babur

The Mughal dynasty (Dudmân-e Mughal) comprised the members of the imperial House of Babur

Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the right: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the left: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12

During the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, the dynasty reached its zenith in terms of geographical extent, economy, military and cultural influence.

French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb

Anglo-Mughal War

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The first Anglo-Indian War on the Indian Subcontinent.

The first Anglo-Indian War on the Indian Subcontinent.

French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb
In 1702, Daud Khan the Mughal Empire's local Subedar of the Carnatic, to besieged and blockaded Fort St. George for more than three months; the governor of the fort, Thomas Pitt, was instructed by the East India Company to vie for peace.

New peace treaties were negotiated, and the East India Company sent petitions to Aurangzeb about trades involving the Portuguese at Hooghly and religious intolerance of the Tamil community in Madras, but praised Aurangzeb Alamgir's imperial majesty and compared him with ancient Persia's emperors Cyrus and Darius, however the company eventually failed to reach an agreement.

Surat in 1690

Surat

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City in the western Indian state of Gujarat.

City in the western Indian state of Gujarat.

Surat in 1690
Surat in 1877
Dutch-Armenian Cemetery of Surat
Tapi river
ONGC plant in Hazira
Metropolitan Surat economic centers and industries map
Surat's Textile District Ring Road in 2007
Surat International Airport
Muglisarai SMC Surat
Science Center And Science Museum
Pandit DinDayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium, Surat
Locho and Idada

However, in 1637, Aurangzeb fully annexed Baglana into the Mughal Empire.

Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), mujaddid of the 7th century, is known for his theological, political and military activities.

Mujaddid

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Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد) to the religion.

Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد) to the religion.

Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), mujaddid of the 7th century, is known for his theological, political and military activities.

Mahiuddin Aurangzeb Alamgir (1618–1707)

Portrait of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of Maratha Empire.

Hindu nationalism

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Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expression of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expression of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

Portrait of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of Maratha Empire.
Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah (1723-1775), King of Nepal, he propagated the ideals of Hindu text Dharmashastra as ruling ideology
Jung Bahadur Kunwar Rana commissioned the first civil code Muluki Ain in 1854 A.D. based on traditional Hindu law and prioritized Tagadhari castes before Matwalis and Dalits
Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati, founder of the Arya Samaj, on a 1962 stamp of India.
Swami Vivekananda on the Platform of the Parliament of the World's Religions.
Sri Aurobindo was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.
A rare photograph of Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab, Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra, and Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal, the triumvirate were popularly known as Lal Bal Pal, who changed the political discourse of the Indian independence movement.
Mahatma Gandhi never called himself a Hindu nationalist, but preached Hindu Dharma.
Subhas Chandra Bose was one of the most prominent leaders and highly respected independence fighters from Bengal in the Indian independence movement.
Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, the founding Sarsanghachalak (or "Supreme Executive") of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
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Syama Prasad Mukherjee, who founded Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Jana Sangh, on a 1978 stamp of India.

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar writes that Shivaji had 'electrified' minds of Hindus all over India by defeating the forces of Aurangzeb.