A report on Roman EmpireRoman Egypt and Aurelian

Province of Aegyptus in AD 125
Aureus of Emperor Aurelian with inscription IMP. C. L. DOM. AVRELIANVS P. F. AVG.
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
A 1st-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes with a uraeus, as pharaoh (Louvre)
Bust of a Roman Emperor historically thought of as a bust of Claudius II. However, there is a possibility that this bust is actually the bust of Aurelian, considering the dissimilarity between it and confirmed statues of Claudius II, especially those unearthed in the nearby Brescia Temple, and the similarity of the features to depictions of Aurelian on Roman currency.
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The first generations of the imperial Severan dynasty depicted on the "Severan Tondo" from Egypt (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Ruins of Imperial Palace at Sirmium, today in Sremska Mitrovica
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Statue of an orator, wearing a himation, from Heracleopolis Magna, in Middle Egypt (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
Aurelian was a military commander, and during his reign he tried to keep legions' fidelity; this coin celebrated the CONCORDIA MILITVM, "concord of the soldiers" – in other words, "harmony between the emperor and the military". Legend: IMP. C. AVRELIANVS AVG. / CONCORDIA MILITVM – XXIQ mint
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Bronze statue of a nude youth, from Athribis in Lower Egypt (British Museum, London)
The Porta Asinaria, a gate in the Aurelian Walls
The Roman Empire by 476
A 2nd-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes, as pharaoh (, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)
The Roman Empire by 271 A.D before the reconquest of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire by Aurelian
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
Encaustic and tempera painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 160, with a green sagum, gold fibula, white tunic, and red leather balteus (British Museum)
The route of Aurelian's campaign against Palmyra.
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
Encaustic painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 130, with a blue sagum, silver fibula, white tunic, and red balteus, with related grave goods (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG – oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG. / ORIENS AVG. – XIR.
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Encaustic mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 100, with a blue sagum, fibula, white tunic with purple angusticlavus, and red balteus (Antikensammlung Berlin)
A Radiate of Aurelian, obverse. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG.
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
1st-century AD mummy excavated by William Flinders Petrie
A Radiate of Aurelian, reverse. Legend: ORIENS AVG. – EXXI.
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC–50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Kushan ruler Huvishka with seated Roman-Egyptian god Serapis (ϹΑΡΑΠΟ, "Sarapo") wearing the modius.
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Roman emperor Trajan making offerings to Egyptian Gods, on the Roman Mammisi at the Dendera Temple complex, Egypt.
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
North apse of the Red Monastery of Sohag
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Possible personification of the province of Egypt from the Temple of Hadrian in Rome (National Roman Museum)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Nilus, the river god of Egypt's Nile, with cornucopia, wheatsheaf, sphinx, and crocodile (Braccio Nuovo). Sculpture from Rome's Temple of Isis and Serapis.
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Enthroned statue of the syncretic god Serapis with Cerberus, from Pozzuoli (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
4th-century relief of the god Horus as a Roman cavalryman killing the crocodile, Setekh (Louvre)
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
2nd-century relief of Anubis as a Roman infantryman in the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Copper-alloy statuettes of Egyptian gods Anubis (left) and Horus (centre) as Roman officers with contrapposto stances (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
5th-century Christian relief (Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst)
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
A possible 2nd-century papyrus fragment of the Gospel of Peter, from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy. LX 4009, Sackler Library)
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
Coptic cross and chi-rho carved into older reliefs at the Temple of Isis at Philae
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Roman-era Christian-themed wool-and-linen Egyptian textile (Louvre)
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Trilingual stela of G. Cornelius Gallus from Philae (Egyptian Museum)
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
Granite statue of Caracalla wearing nemes and uraeus cobra headdress (Alexandria National Museum)
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
"Pompey's Pillar", a monument erected by Diocletian ((r. 284 – 305)) in the Serapeum of Alexandria, represented in a mosaic from Sepphoris in Roman Palestine
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
4th-century pendant with portrait of Alexander the Great as Zeus-Ammon with repoussé border (Walters Art Museum)
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Folio 6 verso from the Golenischev papyrus of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, showing Theophilus of Alexandria standing triumphantly on top of the Serapeum with its bust of Serapis
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
The Carmagnola, an Egyptian porphyry head on Venice's St Mark's Basilica thought to represent Justinian I
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its neighbors.
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
Augustan-era krater in Egyptian alabaster, found in a Roman necropolis at San Prisco in 1897 (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
The Byzantine Empire in 629 after Heraclius had reconquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
1st-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Cleveland Museum of Art)
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
1st/2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
2nd century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
A victor in his four-horse chariot
Mummy portrait (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
2nd-century mummy portrait from Faiyum (Galerie Cybèle, Paris)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Brooklyn Museum)
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
2nd-century mummy portrait (Getty Villa)
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
2nd-century mummy portrait (Pushkin Museum)
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
2nd-century mummy portrait (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
2nd–4th-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
2nd/3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
2nd-century mummy portrait (Harvard Art Museums)
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
2nd-century mummy portrait probably from er-Rubayat (Getty Villa)
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
Canopic jar from the 3rd or 4th century (National Archaeological Museum, Florence)
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Funerary masks uncovered in Faiyum, 1st century.
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
2nd-century statuette of Horus as Roman general (Louvre)
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
1st–4th-century statuette of Horus as a Roman soldier (Louvre)
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite from Lower Egypt (Louvre)
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
1st–4th-century statuette of Isis lactans (Louvre)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Isis lactans: the mother goddess suckles Harpocrates (Pio-Clementino Museum)
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
1st/2nd-century Parian marble statue of Anubis (Gregorian Egyptian Museum)
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
2nd/3rd-century mosaic of Anubis from Ariminum (Museo della Città, Rimini)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone grave stela (Luxor Museum)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone stela (Luxor Museum)
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone relief (Luxor Museum)
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Hadrian coin celebrating Aegyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column at her feet.
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
Zenobia coin reporting her title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

Egypt (Aegyptus ; Aígyptos ) was a subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

- Roman Egypt

As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had nearly disintegrated under the pressure of barbarian invasions and internal revolts.

- Aurelian

Civil wars and proscriptions continued, eventually culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year, Octavian conquered the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power then became unassailable, and in 27 BC, the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title of Augustus, effectively making him the first Roman emperor.

- Roman Empire

It was reunified under Aurelian ((r.

- Roman Empire

The emperor Aurelian ((r.

- Roman Egypt

Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.

- Aurelian

4 related topics with Alpha

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The divided Empire in 271

Crisis of the Third Century

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The divided Empire in 271
Gothic raids in the 3rd century
Barbarian invasions against the Roman Empire in the 3rd century
Emperor Diocletian. With his rise to power in 284, the Crisis of the Third Century ended and gave rise to the Tetrarchy

The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed.

It ended due to the military victories of Aurelian and with the ascension of Diocletian and his implementation of reforms in 284, including the Tetrarchy.

By 268, the empire had split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire (including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and, briefly, Hispania); the Palmyrene Empire (including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus); and, between them, the Italian-centered Roman Empire proper.

The Palmyrene Empire in 271

Palmyrene Empire

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The Palmyrene Empire in 271
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Vaballathus as Augustus, on the obverse of an Antoninianus.
Zenobia as Augusta, on the obverse of an Antoninianus.
Aurelian-Zenobia war.
Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG, the Augustus Rising Sun.

The Palmyrene Empire was a short-lived breakaway state from the Roman Empire resulting from the Crisis of the Third Century.

Named after its capital city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor.

In 271, she claimed the imperial title for both herself and her son, fighting a short war with the Roman emperor Aurelian, who conquered Palmyra and captured the self-proclaimed Empress.

Roman Empire under Augustus (31 BC – AD 14). Yellow: 31BC. dark green 31–19 BC, light green 19–9 BC, pale green 9–6 BC. mauve: client states

Roman province

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Roman Empire under Augustus (31 BC – AD 14). Yellow: 31BC. dark green 31–19 BC, light green 19–9 BC, pale green 9–6 BC. mauve: client states
The Roman empire under Hadrian (125) showing the provinces as then organised
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, under Trajan (117); imperial provinces are shaded green, senatorial provinces are shaded pink, and client states are shaded gray
The new territorial division of tetrarchic system, promoted by Diocletian (300 ca.).

The Roman provinces (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire.

30 BC – Aegyptus, taken over by Augustus after his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. It was the first imperial province in that it was Augustus' own domain as the Egyptians recognised him as their new pharaoh. Its proper initial name was Alexandrea et Aegyptus. It was governed by Augustus' praefectus, Alexandreae et Aegypti.

107 AD – Dacia "Trajana" (the Romanian regions of south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat, and Oltenia), conquered by Trajan in the Dacian Wars (imperial proconsular province). Divided into Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior in 158 by Antoninus Pius. Divided into three provinces (Tres Daciae) in 166 by Marcus Aurelius: Porolissensis, Apulensis and Malvensis (imperial procuratorial provinces). Abandoned by Aurelian in 271.

Neronian coin with the reverse depicting Annona, the personification of the grain supply, and Ceres, whose temple was the site of the dole

Cura Annonae

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The term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the cities of Rome and, after its foundation, Constantinople.

The term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the cities of Rome and, after its foundation, Constantinople.

Neronian coin with the reverse depicting Annona, the personification of the grain supply, and Ceres, whose temple was the site of the dole
A bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
Roman trade routes, 180
A model of a small Roman grain ship. Large ones had three masts.
Alexandria, Egypt and its port, 30 BC
An idealized plan of Portus, constructed about 113 AD to serve the city of Rome.
The sixteen overshot wheels at Barbegal are considered the biggest ancient mill complex. Their capacity was sufficient to feed the whole nearby city of Arles
The columns of the statio annonae are now part of the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Another statio was found near the Crypta Balbi.

The most important sources of bread grain, mostly durum wheat, were Roman Egypt, North Africa (21st century Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco), and Sicily.

The city of Rome grew rapidly in the centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, reaching a population approaching 1,000,000 in the 2nd century AD. In the early centuries of the Republic (509–287 BC), the Roman government intervened sporadically to distribute free or subsidized grain to Rome's more impoverished male citizens.

Severus also began providing olive oil to residents of Rome, and later the emperor Aurelian (270–275) ordered the distribution of wine and pork.