Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen ChamberlainChamberlainAustenRt Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain The Right Honourable '''Austen Chamberlain The Right Honourable Sir '''Austen Chamberlain''' KG Chamberlain, Rt Hon. AustenJoseph AustenRt Hon. Austen ChamberlainRt. Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.wikipedia
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Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainMr. ChamberlainNeville
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.
After working in business and local government, and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election at the age of 49. He declined a junior ministerial position, remaining a backbencher until 1922.

Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJoseph The Right Honourable '''Joseph Chamberlain
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.
Harriet, who had had a premonition that she would die in childbirth, became ill two days after the birth of their son Joseph Austen in October 1863, and died three days later.

F. S. Oliver

F.S Oliver
While at Trinity College, he became a lifelong friend of F. S. Oliver, a future advocate of Imperial Federation and, after 1909, a prominent member of the Round Table movement.
He then went to Trinity College at Cambridge University, where he became a lifelong friend of Austen Chamberlain and his imperial-minded father, Joseph Chamberlain.

Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionist
He stood for the Liberal Unionist Party, which merged with the Conservatives in 1912, and led the Conservatives in the Commons in 1921–22. He was first elected to parliament as a member of his father's own Liberal Unionist Party in 1892, sitting for the seat of East Worcestershire.
He remained semi-politically active and continued as the official leader of the Liberal Unionists, but his son Austen Chamberlain and Lansdowne effectively acted on his behalf in both the party and the Tariff Reform League.

Financial Secretary to the Treasury

Shadow Financial Secretary to the TreasuryFinancial Secretaries to the TreasuryFinancial Secretary
Following the Conservative and Unionist landslide win in the election of 1895, Chamberlain was appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty, holding that post until 1900, when he became Financial Secretary to the Treasury.
Notable former Financial Secretaries to the Treasury include Lord Frederick Cavendish, Austen Chamberlain, Stanley Baldwin, Enoch Powell, Nigel Lawson, and Norman Lamont.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
He was one of the few MPs supporting Winston Churchill's appeals for rearmament against the German threat in the 1930s.
On 22 May 1936, Churchill was present at a meeting of Old Guard Conservatives (the group, not all of them present on that occasion, included Austen Chamberlain, Geoffrey Lloyd, Leopold Amery, and Robert Horne) at Lord Winterton's house at Shillinglee Park, to push for greater rearmament.

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar LawLaw The Right Honourable '''Bonar Law
Chamberlain was opposed by Canadian-born Bonar Law, Walter Long and Irish Unionist Edward Carson.
Despite never having served in the Cabinet, and despite trailing third after Walter Long and Austen Chamberlain, Law became leader when the two frontrunners withdrew rather than risk a draw splitting the party.

War cabinet

British War CabinetWar Cabinet OfficeAustralian War Cabinet
Later, he returned to government and became a member of the War Cabinet in April 1918 as Minister without Portfolio, replacing Lord Milner, who had become Secretary of State for War.
Austen Chamberlain (April 1918 – October 1919)

Mesopotamian campaign

Mesopotamiacampaign in MesopotamiaMesopotamian
Chamberlain remained at the India Office after David Lloyd George succeeded Asquith as Prime Minister in late 1916, but following inquiries into the failure of the Mesopotamian campaign (undertaken by the separately-administered Indian Army) in 1915, including the loss of the British garrison during the Siege of Kut, Chamberlain resigned his post in 1917; as the minister ultimately responsible, the fault lay with him.
Aside from oil, a major British interest in Mesopotamia, especially in the minds of politicians like Austen Chamberlain (Secretary of State for India) and former Viceroy Lord Curzon, was in maintaining British prestige in the eyes of India's Muslim population.

Stanley Baldwin

BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleyPrime Minister
In the autumn of 1922, Chamberlain faced a backbench revolt, largely led by Stanley Baldwin, designed to oust Lloyd George, and when he summoned the Carlton Club meeting 19 October 1922, of Conservative MPs, a motion was there passed for fighting the forthcoming election as an independent party.
After winning the 1924 general election Baldwin formed his second government, which saw important tenures of office by Sir Austen Chamberlain (Foreign Secretary), Winston Churchill (at the Exchequer) and Neville Chamberlain (Health).

Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity CollegeTrinity3rd Trinity
Austen was educated first at Rugby School, before passing on to Trinity College, Cambridge.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithAsquithianHerbert Henry Asquith
The issue that had prompted his father to leave the Liberal Party in the 1880s now threatened to spill over into outright civil war, with the government of H. H. Asquith committed to the passage of a Third Home Rule Bill.
However, Asquith's first budget, in 1906, was constrained by the annual income and expenditure plans he had inherited from his predecessor Austen Chamberlain.

Carlton Club

Carltonthe CarltonJunior Carlton
In the autumn of 1922, Chamberlain faced a backbench revolt, largely led by Stanley Baldwin, designed to oust Lloyd George, and when he summoned the Carlton Club meeting 19 October 1922, of Conservative MPs, a motion was there passed for fighting the forthcoming election as an independent party.
The club is most famous for the Carlton Club meeting of 19 October 1922, in which backbench Conservative MPs decided to overthrow their leader Austen Chamberlain and withdraw from the David Lloyd George – led coalition government.

Carlton Club meeting

a meetingmeeting of Conservative MPsCarlton Club meeting in October 1922
In the autumn of 1922, Chamberlain faced a backbench revolt, largely led by Stanley Baldwin, designed to oust Lloyd George, and when he summoned the Carlton Club meeting 19 October 1922, of Conservative MPs, a motion was there passed for fighting the forthcoming election as an independent party.
The meeting voted decisively against the Coalition, which resulted in its collapse, the resignation of Austen Chamberlain as party leader, and the invitation of Bonar Law to form a Government.

Civil Lord of the Admiralty (Royal Navy)

Civil Lord of the AdmiraltyCivil LordCivil Lord Civil Lord of the Admiralty
Following the Conservative and Unionist landslide win in the election of 1895, Chamberlain was appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty, holding that post until 1900, when he became Financial Secretary to the Treasury.
Mr. Austen Chamberlain, 1895 - 1900

Walter Long, 1st Viscount Long

Walter LongWalter Hume Long1st Viscount Long
Chamberlain was opposed by Canadian-born Bonar Law, Walter Long and Irish Unionist Edward Carson.
In 1903, Long took a leading role as a spokesman for the protectionist wing of the party, advocating tariff reform and imperial preference alongside Joseph Chamberlain and his son Austen Chamberlain, which brought him into conflict with Charles Ritchie, Michael Hicks-Beach and others on the free-trade wing.

George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston

Lord CurzonGeorge CurzonCurzon
Like other politicians, including Arthur Balfour and George Curzon, Chamberlain supported the invasion of Mesopotamia to increase British prestige in the region, thus discouraging a German-inspired Muslim revolt in India.
Like other politicians (e.g. Chamberlain, Arthur Balfour) Curzon favoured British Empire efforts in Mesopotamia, believing that the increase in British prestige would discourage a German-inspired Muslim revolt in India.

East Worcestershire (UK Parliament constituency)

East WorcestershireWorcestershire EastWorcestershire Eastern
He was first elected to parliament as a member of his father's own Liberal Unionist Party in 1892, sitting for the seat of East Worcestershire.

1906 United Kingdom general election

19061906 general election1906 election
Facing a resurgent Liberal opposition and the threat of an internal party split, Balfour eventually took the Unionists into opposition in December 1905, and in the ensuing rout in the election of 1906, Austen found himself one of the few surviving Liberal Unionists in the House of Commons.
Only three of the Conservative cabinet which had served until December 1905 (one month before the election) held onto their seats, former Chancellor Austen Chamberlain, former Home Secretary Aretas Akers-Douglas, and former Secretary of State for War Hugh Arnold-Forster.

Secretary of State for India

Secretary of State for India and BurmaSecretary of StateIndia Secretary
Chamberlain joined the cabinet as Secretary of State for India.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

ChancellorChancellors of the ExchequerSpokesperson for the Treasury
In the wake of the struggle between his father and Balfour, Austen Chamberlain became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1903.

Locarno Treaties

LocarnoLocarno PactFrance in 1925
As Foreign Secretary, he negotiated the Locarno Pact (1925), aimed at preventing war between France and Germany, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
British Foreign Minister Austen Chamberlain enthusiastically agreed.

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon. David Lloyd GeorgeBritish Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Chamberlain remained at the India Office after David Lloyd George succeeded Asquith as Prime Minister in late 1916, but following inquiries into the failure of the Mesopotamian campaign (undertaken by the separately-administered Indian Army) in 1915, including the loss of the British garrison during the Siege of Kut, Chamberlain resigned his post in 1917; as the minister ultimately responsible, the fault lay with him.
The Conservative leader, Austen Chamberlain, summoned a meeting of Conservative Members of Parliament at the Carlton Club to discuss their attitude to the Coalition in the forthcoming election.

Aristide Briand

BriandBriand AristideBriand group
Together with Aristide Briand of France, Chamberlain and Stresemann met at the town of Locarno in October 1925 and signed a mutual agreement (together with representatives from Belgium and Italy) to settle all differences between the nations by arbitration, not war.
Aristide Briand received the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize together with Gustav Stresemann of Germany for the Locarno Treaties (Austen Chamberlain of the United Kingdom had received a share of the Peace Prize a year earlier for the same agreement ).

Irish War of Independence

War of IndependenceAnglo-Irish WarIrish independence
The Lloyd George coalition was beginning to falter, following numerous scandals and the unsuccessful conclusion of the Anglo-Irish War, and it was widely believed that it would not survive until the next general election.
Austen Chamberlain, the new leader of the Unionist Party, said that "the King's Speech ought to be followed up as a last attempt at peace before we go the full lengths of martial law".